To estimate the effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal mortality.
A cross-sectional study using a state perinatal database (California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative) was performed. Prenatal data, including ruptured membranes, corticosteroid administration, maternal age, maternal race, maternal hypertension, mode of delivery, and prenatal care, were recorded. Mortality rates were compared for neonates born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation without preterm PROM to those with recent (less than 18 hours before delivery) and prolonged (more than 18 hours before delivery) preterm PROM. Neonatal sepsis rates were also examined.
Neonates born between 24 0/7 and 34 0/7 weeks of gestation from 127 California neonatal intensive care units between 2005 and 2007 were included (N=17,501). When analyzed by 2-week gestational age groups, there were no differences in mortality rates between those born with and without membrane rupture before delivery. The presence of prolonged preterm PROM was associated with decreased mortality at 24 to 26 weeks of gestation (18% compared with 31% for recent preterm PROM; odds ratio [OR] 1.79; confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.56) but increased mortality at 28 to 30 weeks of gestation (4% compared with 3% for recent preterm PROM; OR 0.44; CI 0.22, 0.88) when adjusted for possible confounding factors. Sepsis rates did not differ between those with recent or prolonged preterm PROM at any gestational age.
The presence of membrane rupture before delivery was not associated with increased neonatal mortality in any gestational age group. The effects of a prolonged latency period were not consistent across gestational ages.
"Prolonged rupture of membranes is defined as rupture of membranes for ≥18 hours before labor6). All neonates admitted to the NICU with suspected EONS (neonates with clinical signs of infection or those with maternal risk factors for infection) were enrolled in the study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the frequency of bacterial isolates in early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their antimicrobial resistance pattern.
A retrospective study of EONS was conducted at the Beni Suef University Hospital from September 2008 to September 2012. A case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs of infection or who was born to a mother with risk factors for infection, and in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life grew a bacterial pathogen.
Of 673 neonates screened, there were 138 positive blood cultures (20.5%) (confirmed EONS). Of the recovered isolates, 86.2% were gram-negative pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae (42.8%), Enterobacter cloacae (22.5%), and Escherichia coli (13.8%) were the commonest isolated organisms. The most common gram-positive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus accounting for only 12 isolates (8.7%). All Klebsiella isolates and 93% of Enterobacter isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Gram-negative pathogens had the maximum overall sensitivity to imipenem, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin; whereas, gram-positive isolates were most susceptible to vancomycin, imipenem, and piperacillin.
K. pneumoniae was the predominant causative bacteria of EONS followed by E. cloacae and E. coli. There was a high resistance to ampicillin. Imipenem had the maximum overall activity against the causative bacteria. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the changing epidemiology of pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 08/2013; 56(8):332-7. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.8.332
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much emphasis in recent decades has been devoted to inflammation and infection as a premier causal mechanism of preterm birth. This article explores the epidemiologic, clinical, and animal data that exist to support this conceptual paradigm as well as proposed mechanisms through which to potentially mitigate the adversity of prematurity. Truly successful interventions are not likely to occur until the pathogenesis of preterm birth and the role of inflammation in causing not only parturition but also fetal and neonatal injury is fully elucidated.
Clinics in perinatology 09/2011; 38(3):385-406. DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2011.06.003 · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM).
To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM.
Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital.
Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%.
Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM.
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