Mitotic DNA damage targets the Aurora A/TPX2 complex
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that the DNA damage-induced G2 arrest is contributed by inhibition of Aurora A (AurA) and that transduction of active AurA into arrested cells allows bypassing the block through reactivation of CDK1. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of DNA damage-induced AurA inhibition. We provide evidence that ionizing radiation (IR) administered in mitosis, a time when AurA protein and enzymatic activity reach peak levels, impairs interaction with the partner TPX2, leading to inactivation of the kinase through dephosphorylation of AurA T-loop residue, T288. We find that decreased AurA-TPX2 complex formation in response to irradiation results from reduced cellular levels of TPX2, an effect that is both contributed by increased APC/CDH1-dependent protein degradation and decreased translation of TPX2 mRNA.
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ABSTRACT: Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) plays an important role in the regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis. Dysregulated Aurora-A leads to mitotic faults and results in pathological conditions. No studies on Aurora-A expression in human diabetic skin tissue have been reported. In light of this, we explored the expression of Aurora-A in human diabetic skin tissue. Aurora-A protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 human diabetic skin tissue and 6 normal skin specimens. Increased expression of Aurora-A protein was detected in all diabetic skin tissue samples in both western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. However, in the case of the normal skin tissue, no bands of Aurora-A protein were detected in either the western blotting analysis or the immunohistochemical staining. Thus far, there have been no studies on the expression of Aurora-A in diabetic skin tissue. However, we believe that oxidative DNA damage related to the expression of Aurora-A protein and Aurora-A could be involved inhuman diabetic skin tissue.01/2014; 41(1):35-9. DOI:10.5999/aps.2014.41.1.35
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ABSTRACT: The DNA of all organisms is constantly subjected to damaging agents, both exogenous and endogenous. One extremely harmful lesion is the double-strand break (DSB), which activates a massive signaling network - the DNA damage response (DDR). The chief activator of the DSB response is the ATM protein kinase, which phosphorylates numerous key players in its various branches. Recent phosphoproteomic screens have extended the scope of damage-induced phosphorylations beyond the direct ATM substrates. We review the evidence for the involvement of numerous other protein kinases in the DDR, obtained from documentation of specific pathways as well as high-throughput screens. The emerging picture of the protein phosphorylation landscape in the DDR broadens the current view on the role of this protein modification in the maintenance of genomic stability. Extensive cross-talk between many of these protein kinases forms an interlaced signaling network that spans numerous cellular processes. Versatile protein kinases in this network affect pathways that are different from those they have been identified with to date. The DDR appears to be one of the most extensive signaling responses to cellular stimuli.FEBS letters 06/2011; 585(11):1625-39. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2011.05.013 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumors and wounds share many similarities including loss of tissue architecture, cell polarity and cell differentiation, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling (Ballard et al., 2006) increased inflammation, angiogenesis, and elevated cell migration and proliferation. Whereas these changes are transient in repairing wounds, tumors do not regain tissue architecture but rather their continued progression is fueled in part by loss of normal tissue structure. As a result tumors are often described as wounds that do not heal. The ECM component hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor RHAMM have both been implicated in wound repair and tumor progression. This review highlights the similarities and differences in their roles during these processes and proposes that RHAMM-regulated wound repair functions may contribute to "cancerization" of the tumor microenvironment.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:103923. DOI:10.1155/2014/103923 · 2.71 Impact Factor