A vesicle carrier that mediates peroxisome protein traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2010; 107(50):21523-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1013397107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pex19p, a soluble cytoplasmic transport protein, is required for the traffic of the peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex3p and Pex15p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome. We documented Pex15p traffic from the ER using a chimeric protein containing a C-terminal glycosylation acceptor peptide. Pex15Gp expressed in wild-type yeast cells is N-glycosylated and functions properly in the peroxisome. In contrast, pex19Δ-mutant cells accumulate the glycoprotein Pex15Gp in the ER. We developed a cell-free preperoxisomal vesicle-budding reaction in which Pex15Gp and Pex3p are packaged into small vesicles in the presence of cytosol, Pex19p, and ATP. Secretory vesicle budding (COPII) detected by the packaging of a SNARE protein (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment protein receptor) occurs in the same incubation but does not depend on Pex19p. Conversely a dominant GTPase mutant Sar1p which inhibits COPII has no effect on Pex3p packaging. Pex15Gp and Pex3p budded vesicles sediment as low-buoyant-density membranes on a Nycodenz gradient and copurify by affinity isolation using native but not Triton X-100-treated budded vesicles. ER-peroxisome transport vesicles appear to rely on a novel budding mechanism requiring Pex19p and additional unknown factors.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome is a single-membrane organelle in eukaryotes. The functional importance of peroxisomes in humans is highlighted by peroxisome-deficient peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS). Gene defects of peroxins required for both membrane assembly and matrix protein import are identified: ten mammalian pathogenic peroxins for ten complementation groups of PBDs, are required for matrix protein import; three, Pex3p, Pex16p and Pex19p, are shown to be essential for peroxisome membrane assembly and responsible for the most severe ZS in PBDs of three complementation groups 12, 9, and 14, respectively. Patients with severe ZS with defects of PEX3, PEX16, and PEX19 tend to carry severe mutation such as nonsense mutations, frameshifts and deletions. With respect to the function of these three peroxins in membrane biogenesis, two distinct pathways have been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins in mammalian cells: a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex16p-dependent class II pathway. In class II pathway, Pex19p also forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p as the chaperone for Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Pex16p functions as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. A model for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins is suggested, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p. Another model suggests that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes likely emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metabolic Functions and Biogenesis of peroxisomes in Health and Disease.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2012; 1822(9):1337-42. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.06.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pex1 and Pex6 are Type-2 AAA+ ATPases required for the de-novo biogenesis of peroxisomes. Mutations in Pex1 and Pex6 account for the majority of the most severe forms of peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Here we show that the ATP-dependent complex of Pex1 and Pex6 from S. cerevisiae is a heterohexamer with alternating subunits. Within the Pex1/Pex6 complex, only the D2 ATPase ring hydrolyzes ATP, while nucleotide binding in the D1 ring promotes complex assembly. ATP hydrolysis by Pex1 is highly coordinated with that of Pex6. Furthermore, Pex15, the membrane anchor required for Pex1/Pex6 recruitment to peroxisomes inhibits the ATP-hydrolysis activity of Pex1/Pex6. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2015; 427(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2015.01.019 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, continuous membrane-bound organelle comprised of functionally and structurally distinct domains including the nuclear envelope, peripheral tubular ER, peripheral cisternae, and numerous membrane contact sites at the plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi, endosomes, and peroxisomes. These domains are required for multiple cellular processes, including synthesis of proteins and lipids, calcium level regulation, and exchange of macromolecules with various organelles at ER-membrane contact sites. The ER maintains its unique overall structure regardless of dynamics or transfer at ER-organelle contacts. In this review, we describe the numerous factors that contribute to the structure of the ER.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 04/2013; 5(4). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a013227 · 8.23 Impact Factor


Available from