Molecular Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Ontario, Canada
ABSTRACT Surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance and the molecular characterization of the mechanisms underlying these resistance phenotypes are essential in order to establish correct empirical therapies, as well as to describe the emergence of new mechanisms in local bacterial populations. To address these goals, 149 isolates were collected over a 1-month period (October-November 2008) at the Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Canada, and susceptibility profiles (8 antibiotics) were examined. Mutations in previously identified targets or the presence of some enzymes related to resistance (r), nonsusceptibility (ns) (resistant plus intermediate categories), or reduced susceptibility (rs) to the antibiotics tested were also studied. A significant proportion of nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PEN) (89.2%), tetracycline (TET) (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (29%), and macrolides (erythromycin [ERY] and azithromycin; 22.3%) was found in these strains. Multidrug resistance was observed in 18.8% of the collection. Although all the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) (ceftriaxone and cefixime), 9.4% of them displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. PBP 2 mosaic structures were found in all of these ESC(rs) isolates. Alterations in the mtrR promoter, MtrR repressor (TET(r), PEN(ns), ESC(rs), and ERY(ns)), porin PIB (TET(r) and PEN(ns)), and ribosomal protein S10 (TET(r)) and double mutations in gyrA and parC quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) (CIP(r)) were associated with and presumably responsible for the resistance phenotypes observed. This is the first description of ESC(rs) in Canada. The detection of this phenotype indicates a change in the epidemiology of this resistance and highlights the importance of continued surveillance to preserve the last antimicrobial options available.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Roberto G Melano, Aug 12, 2015
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- "If left untreated, cervical infection can ascend into the upper reproductive tract, causing pelvic inflammatory disease and leading to tubal scarring, infertility , and risk for ectopic pregnancy (Hook and Handsfield, 1999). The infection has usually been treated effectively with antibiotics, but there are now concerns that strains of N. gonorrhoeae are emerging with resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics (Allen et al., 2011). Repeated infections are common, and no state of protective immunity appears to develop as a consequence of infection. "
ABSTRACT: Murine genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae has previously been found to induce IL-17 which is important in both recruitment of neutrophils and prompt clearance of the infection. As IL-22 is another Th17-related cytokine that has been implicated in the immune responses in several infection models, we investigated its role in vaginal gonococcal infection of mice. Production of IL-22 was observed in response to stimulation with N. gonorrhoeae in both mouse splenic mononuclear cells and vaginal tissue explants cultured ex vivo. Tissue from mice genetically deficient in IL-22 showed diminished production of IL-6 and the CXC chemokine KC in response to N. gonorrhoeae, whereas IL-17 and the chemokines LIX and MIP-2α were produced to the same extent as in wild-type tissue. IL-22-deficient mice were unexpectedly resistant to genital tract infection with N. gonorrhoeae in vivo, but showed no change in the influx of neutrophils to the site of infection. These results reveal divergent roles for IL-17 and IL-22 in response to gonococcal infection.Frontiers in Immunology 02/2012; 3:11. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00011
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the first Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (H041) highly resistant to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) ceftriaxone and cefixime, which are the last remaining options for first-line gonorrhea treatment, was isolated in Japan. Here, we confirm and characterize a second strain (F89) with high-level cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance which was isolated in France and most likely caused a treatment failure with cefixime. F89 was examined using six species-confirmatory tests, antibiograms (33 antimicrobials), porB sequencing, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and sequencing of known gonococcal resistance determinants (penA, mtrR, penB, ponA, and pilQ). F89 was assigned to MLST sequence type 1901 (ST1901) and NG-MAST ST1407, which is a successful gonococcal clone that has spread globally. F89 has high-level resistance to cefixime (MIC = 4 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (MIC = 1 to 2 μg/ml) and resistance to most other antimicrobials examined. A novel penA mosaic allele (penA-CI), which was penA-XXXIV with an additional A501P alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2, was the primary determinant for high-level ESC resistance, as determined by transformation into a set of recipient strains. N. gonorrhoeae appears to be emerging as a superbug, and in certain circumstances and settings, gonorrhea may become untreatable. Investigations of the biological fitness and enhanced understanding and monitoring of the ESC-resistant clones and their international transmission are required. Enhanced disease control activities, antimicrobial resistance control and surveillance worldwide, and public health response plans for global (and national) perspectives are also crucial. Nevertheless, new treatment strategies and/or drugs and, ideally, a vaccine are essential to develop for efficacious gonorrhea management.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2011; 56(3):1273-80. DOI:10.1128/AAC.05760-11 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From 2006 to 2008, Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were identified with decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) cefotaxime among visitors of the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, the Netherlands. Spread, clonality, and characteristics of 202 isolates were examined using antibiograms, conventional penA mosaic gene PCR, and N. gonorrhoeae multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (NG-MLVA). A strictly defined subset was further characterized by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR, and porB1b). Seventy-four N. gonorrhoeae isolates with a cefotaxime MIC of >0.125 μg/ml (group A), 54 with a cefotaxime MIC of 0.125 μg/ml (group B), and a control group of 74 with a cefotaxime MIC of <0.125 μg/ml (group C) were included. Fifty-three clonally related penA mosaic-positive isolates (penicillin-binding protein 2 type XXXIV) were identified in group A (n ∇ 47 isolates; 64%) and B (n ∇ 6 isolates; 11%). The 53 penA mosaic-positive isolates were predominantly NG-MAST ST1407 (87%) and contained an mtrR promoter A deletion (98%) and porB1b alterations G101K/A102N. All were assigned to the same NG-MLVA cluster that comprised in total 56 isolates. A correlation was found between decreased cefotaxime susceptibility and ST1407 that was highly prevalent among visitors of the Amsterdam STI clinic. The rapid spread of this strain, which also has been identified in many other countries, might be facilitated by high-risk sexual behavior and should be monitored closely to identify potential treatment failure. Quality-assured surveillance of ESC susceptibility on the national and international levels and exploration of new drugs and/or strategies for treatment of gonorrhea are crucial. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2012; 56(3):1516-22. DOI:10.1128/AAC.05481-11 · 4.45 Impact Factor