BMP signaling promotes the growth of primary human colon carcinomas in vivo.
ABSTRACT Human colon carcinomas (CCs) represent a growing worldwide problem. One of the pathways that has been negatively implicated in the genesis of CCs is triggered by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands, which activate BMP receptors leading to the function of SMAD proteins in the nucleus. BMP signaling is altered in familial human polyposis, and mice with compromised BMP signaling in the intestine develop tumors. Here, we have re-evaluated the presence and roles of BMP signaling in advanced sporadic human CCs, using both primary tumors and established cell lines, and directly modulating BMP pathway activity in a cell-autonomous manner using constitutively active and dominant-negative BMP receptor Ib forms. We find evidence for active endogenous BMP signaling in all primary CC samples and for its role in promoting primary CC tumor growth and CC cell survival and proliferation in vivo in xenografts. In vitro, we also document autonomous and non-autonomous effects of enhanced BMP receptor activity on gap closure in culture, suggesting possible roles in invasion. Caution should thus be exerted in trying to augment or restore its activity for therapeutic purposes. In contrast, we raise the possibility that blockade of BMP signaling might have beneficial effects against at least a subset of advanced colon cancers.
Article: Retinoblastoma treatment: impact of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose on molecular genomics expression in LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) on the spatial distribution of the genetic expression of key elements involved in angiogenesis, hypoxia, cellular metabolism, and apoptosis in LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors. The right eye of each LH(BETA)T(AG) transgenic mouse (n = 24) was treated with either two or six subconjunctival injections of 2-DG (500 mg/kg) or saline control at 16 weeks of age. A gene expression array analysis was performed on five different intratumoral regions (apex, center, base, anterior-lateral, and posterior-lateral) using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays. To test for treatment effects of each probe within each region, a two-way analysis of variance was used. Significant differences between treatment groups (ie, 0, 2, and 6 injections) were found as well as differences among the five retinal tumor regions evaluated (P < 0.01). More than 100 genes were observed to be dysregulated by ≥2-fold difference in expression between the three treatment groups, and their dysregulation varied across the five regions assayed. Several genes involved in pathways important for tumor cell growth (ie, angiogenesis, hypoxia, cellular metabolism, and apoptosis) were identified. 2-DG was found to significantly alter the gene expression in LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumor cells according to their location within the tumor as well as the treatment schedule. 2-DG's effects on genetic expression found here correlate with previous reported results on varied processes involved in its in vitro and in vivo activity in inhibiting tumor cell growth.Clinical Ophthalmology 01/2012; 6:817-30.