Using rapid prototyping molds to create patient specific polymethylmethacrylate implants in cranioplasty.
ABSTRACT Cranioplasty is a commonly performed procedure. Outcomes can be improved by the use of patient specific implants, however, high costs limit their accessibility. This paper presents a low cost alternative technique to create patient specific polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implants using rapid prototyped mold template. We used available patient's CT-scans, one dataset without craniotomy and one with craniotomy, for computer-assisted design of a 3D mold template, which itself can be brought into the operating room and be used for fast and easy building of a PMMA implant. We applied our solution to three patients with positive outcomes and no complications.
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ABSTRACT: Cranioplasty is a surgical operation to repair hole or defects on skull. 3 dimensional computed tomography (CT) images are used for automatic determination of the shape of implant which is used for repairing defect. The designing implant by mathematical model and manufacturing it before operation lowers the operation cost. In this paper, previous studies are examined, applications are realized by radial basis functions (RBF) and insufficient sections of previous studies are revealed.Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), Trabzon, Turkey; 04/2014
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ABSTRACT: Intraoperatively fabricated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implants based on computer-designed moulds were used to improve cosmetic results after hard tissue replacement. To assess the implant's cosmetic and functional results we performed both subjective and objective assessments. This retrospective analysis was performed using a cohort of 28 patients who received PMMA implants between February 2009 and March 2012. The cosmetic and functional results were assessed using a patient questionnaire. Furthermore an objective volumetric subtraction score (0-100) was applied and implant thickness, as well as gaps and tiers, were measured. Patients mainly judged their cosmetic result as "good". Two of the 28 patients found their cosmetic result unfavourable. The functional result and stability was mainly judged to be good. Measurements of implant thickness showed a very high correlation with the thickness of the contralateral bone. Volumetric subtraction led to a median quality of 80 on a scale from 0 to 100. Median gaps around the margins of the implant were 1.5 mm parietally, 1.7 mm frontally and 3.5 mm fronto-orbitally, and median tiers were 1.2 mm, 0 mm and 0 mm respectively. The overall rate of surgical revisions was 10.7 % (three patients). Two patients suffered from wound healing disturbances (7.1 %). The overall complication rate was comparable to other reports in the literature. Implantation of intraoperatively fabricated patient-specific moulded implants is a cost-effective and safe technique leading to good clinical results with a low complication rate.Acta Neurochirurgica 01/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decompressive craniectomies (DC) mandate future cranioplasties, accounting for the large array of biomaterials for this purpose. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a very reliable thermoplastic that can be prefabricated or even molded intraoperatively to create an adequate prosthesis. Preformed PMMA implants made by hand have been superseded by newer 3-D printed implants, but this is accompanied by higher costs and timing issues, apart from having limited availability in developing and third-world countries. A total of 26 patients were operated over a span of 11 years. A total of 26 custom hand-made PMMA prostheses were fabricated using original bone flaps with the aid of a prosthodontist, in a process that took approximately 70 minutes for each implant. The result was an exact duplication of the patient's bone flap. Of the 26 patients who underwent cranioplasty, the majority of patients were males, with a mean age of 39.2 years and traumatic brain injury as main indication for DC. After a mean interval of 2.4 months, all 26 patients underwent a cranioplasty and prosthesis placement. Only two patients (7.6%) suffered from direct cranioplasty-related complications after a median follow-up of 10.4 months. Median Glasgow Outcome Scale scores improved significantly from 3 to 4 after cranioplasty (P = 0.008). Prefabrication of custom PMMA prostheses by hand when original bone flaps are available is an excellent alternative to newer 3-D printing techniques, because it is relatively cheaper, less time consuming, and offers excellent results in terms of anatomical reconstruction and improvement of neurological function in long-term follow-ups.Surgical Neurology International 01/2013; 4:136. · 1.18 Impact Factor