In Vitro Kinematic Measurements of the Patellar Tendon in Two Different Types of Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasties
ABSTRACT Fixed-bearing posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in Asian countries for several years, but few studies have investigated differences in the kinematic properties of the patellar tendon after standard PS TKA as compared to high-flex PS TKA.
To quantify the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the patellar tendon during passive high flexion and full extension before and after two different types of PS TKAs.
Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were tested under the following conditions: the unaltered state, status-post traditional PS prostheses (Simth-nephew GENESIS II) replacement, and status-post high-flexion PS prostheses replacement. The soft tissue around the knee and the quadriceps muscle were preserved, then tested under the load of a specific weight in an Oxford knee rig. We designed a specialized rigid body with four active markers fixed to each bone to track the 3D passive motion of the cadaveric knees. Flexion and extension was controlled by the knee rig and captured by an Optotrak Certus high precision optical tracking system. The attachment sites of the patellar tendon were registered as virtual markers to calculate the 3D kinematics.
The patellar tendon of the unaltered knee and both TKA knees showed similar deformation. We found the length of the patellar tendon changed significantly during a motion from full extension to 30°, but there was no significant change in length while undergoing a motion from 30° to full flexion. Both the sagittal plane and coronal plane angles of the patellar tendon decreased after PS TKAs. There was no significant difference in patellar tendon kinematics between the two types of PS TKAs.
We believe the changes observed in the sagittal plane and coronal plane angles of the patellar tendon after PS TKAs may influence the extensor mechanism and be an important cause of patella-femoral complications. These data may be used to assess patella-femoral complications after surgery so as to improve the design of high-flexion TKAs for Asians and achieve long-term stability.
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ABSTRACT: Modeling ligaments as three-dimensional strings is a popular method for in vivo estimation of ligament length. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for automated generation of non-penetrating strings between insertion points and to evaluate its feasibility for estimating length changes of the medial patellofemoral ligament during normal knee flexion. Three-dimensional knee models were generated from computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 healthy subjects. The knee joint under weight-bearing was acquired in four flexion positions (0°-120°). The path between insertion points was computed in each position to quantify string length and isometry. The average string length was maximal in 0° of flexion (64.5 ± 3.9 mm between femoral and proximal patellar point; 62.8 ± 4.0 mm between femoral and distal patellar point). It was minimal in 30° (60.0 ± 2.6 mm) for the proximal patellar string and in 120° (58.7 ± 4.3 mm) for the distal patellar string. The insertion points were considered to be isometric in 4 of the 10 subjects. The proposed algorithm appears to be feasible for estimating string lengths between insertion points in an automatic fashion. The length measurements based on CT images acquired under physiological loading conditions may give further insights into knee kinematics.Medical & Biological Engineering 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11517-014-1156-8 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. METHODS: Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. RESULTS: Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. CONCLUSIONS: It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 06/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00167-012-2082-7 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Lack of the anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty results in paradoxical movement of the femur as opposed to the tibia under deep flexion. Total knee arthroplasty with mobile-bearing inlays has been developed to provide increased physiological movement of the knee joint and to reduce polyethylene abrasion. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of the kinematic movement in the sagittal plane in order to show differences between fixed- and mobile-bearing TKA in comparison with the natural knee joint. METHODS: Seven knee joints of human cadaver material were used in a laboratory experiment. Fixed- and mobile-bearing inlays were tested in sequences under isokinetic extension in so-called kinemator for knee joints, which can simulate muscular traction power by the use of hydraulic cylinders, which crossover the knee joint. As a target parameter, the a.p. translation of the tibio-femoral relative movement was measured in the sagittal plane under ultrasound (Zebris) control. RESULTS: The results show a reduced tibial a.p. translation in relation to the femur in the bearing group compared to the natural joint. In the Z-axis, between 110° and 50° of flexion, linear movement decreases towards caudal movement under extension. Admittedly, the study did not show differences in the movement pattern between "mobile-bearing" and "fixed-bearing" prostheses. CONCLUSION: Results of this study cannot prove functional advantages of mobile-bearing prostheses for the knee joint kinematic after TKA. Both types of prostheses show typical kinematics of an anterior instability, hence they were incapable of performing physiological movement.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2012; 21(10). DOI:10.1007/s00167-012-1986-6 · 2.68 Impact Factor