The Central Oscillatory Network of Essential Tremor
ABSTRACT The responsible pathological mechanisms of essential tremor are not yet clear. In order to understand the mechanisms of the central network its sources need to be found. The cortical sources of both the basic and first "harmonic" frequency of essential tremor are addressed in this paper. The power and coherence were estimated using the multitaper method for EEG and EMG data from 6 essential tremor patients. The Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources (DICS) was used to find the coherent sources in the brain. Before hand this method was validated for the application of finding multiple sources for the same oscillation in the brain by using two model simulations which indicated the accuracy of the method. In all the essential tremor patients the corticomuscular coherence was also present in the basic and the first harmonic frequency of the tremor. The source for the basic frequency and the first harmonic frequency was in the region of primary sensory motor cortex, prefrontal and in the diencephalon on the contralateral side for all the patients. Thus the generation of these two oscillations involves the same cortical areas and indicates the oscillation at double the tremor frequency is a harmonic of the basic tremor frequency.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to analyze corticomuscular coherence during planning and execution of simple hand movements in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy controls (HC). Fourteen individuals with CP and 15 HC performed voluntary paced movements (opening and closing the fist) in response to a warning signal. Simultaneous scalp EEG and surface EMG of extensor carpi radialis brevis were recorded during 15 isotonic contractions. Time-frequency corticomuscular coherence (EMG-C3/C4) before and during muscular contraction, as well as EMG intensity, onset latency and duration were analyzed. Although EMG intensity was similar in both groups, individuals with CP exhibited longer onset latency and increased duration of the muscular contraction than HC. CP also showed higher corticomuscular coherence in beta EEG band during both planning and execution of muscular contraction, as well as lower corticomuscular coherence in gamma EEG band at the beginning of the contraction as compared with HC. In conclusion, our results suggest that individuals with CP are characterized by an altered functional coupling between primary motor cortex and effector muscles during planning and execution of isotonic contractions. In addition, the usefulness of corticomuscular coherence as a research tool for exploring deficits in motor central processing in persons with early brain damage is discussed.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jelekin.2014.07.004 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Volume conduction (VC) and magnetic field spread (MFS) induce spurious correlations between EEG/MEG sensors, such that the estimation of functional networks from scalp recordings is inaccurate. Imaginary coherency  reduces VC/MFS artefacts between sensors by assuming that instantaneous interactions are caused predominantly by VC/MFS and do not contribute to the imaginary part of the cross-spectral densities (CSDs). We propose an adaptation of the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS)  - a method for reconstructing the CSDs between sources, and subsequently inferring functional connectivity based on coherences between those sources. Firstly, we reformulate the principle of imaginary coherency by performing an eigenvector decomposition of the imaginary part of the CSD to estimate the power that only contributes to the non-zero phase-lagged (NZPL) interactions. Secondly, we construct an NZPL-optimised spatial filter with two a priori assumptions: (1) that only NZPL interactions exist at the source level and (2) the NZPL CSD at the sensor level is a good approximation of the projected source NZPL CSDs. We compare the performance of the NZPL method to the standard method by reconstructing a coherent network from simulated EEG/MEG recordings. We demonstrate that, as long as there are phase differences between the sources, the NZPL method reliably detects the underlying networks from EEG and MEG. We show that the method is also robust to very small phase lags, noise from phase jitter, and is less sensitive to regularisation parameters. The method is applied to a human dataset to infer parts of a coherent network underpinning face recognition.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81553. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081553 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone) and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS), an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity) between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC) method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78422. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078422 · 3.53 Impact Factor