Ubiquitin binding to A20 ZnF4 is required for modulation of NF-κB signaling.
ABSTRACT Inactivating mutations in the ubiquitin (Ub) editing protein A20 promote persistent nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling and are genetically linked to inflammatory diseases and hematologic cancers. A20 tightly regulates NF-κB signaling by acting as an Ub editor, removing K63-linked Ub chains and mediating addition of Ub chains that target substrates for degradation. However, a precise molecular understanding of how A20 modulates this pathway remains elusive. Here, using structural analysis, domain mapping, and functional assays, we show that A20 zinc finger 4 (ZnF4) does not directly interact with E2 enzymes but instead can bind mono-Ub and K63-linked poly-Ub. Mutations to the A20 ZnF4 Ub-binding surface result in decreased A20-mediated ubiquitination and impaired regulation of NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our studies illuminate the mechanistically distinct but biologically interdependent activities of the A20 ZnF and ovarian tumor (OTU) domains that are inherent to the Ub editing process and, ultimately, to regulation of NF-κB signaling.
Article: Ubiquitin in the immune system.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification process that has been implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. There is increasing evidence that both ubiquitination and its reversal, deubiquitination, play crucial roles not only during the development of the immune system but also in the orchestration of an immune response by ensuring the proper functioning of the different cell types that constitute the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the latest discoveries in this field and discuss how they impact our understanding of the ubiquitin system in host defence mechanisms as well as self-tolerance.EMBO Reports 03/2014; 15(3):322. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Deubiquitination-mediated regulation is important for homeostatic NF-κB activation. Aberrant NF-κB activation associated with various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders is linked with defects in the deubiquitinase A20. A20 is an important anti-inflammatory molecule that is induced by multiple signals and has numerous targets. Polymorphisms within the A20 locus or its altered expression are thought to contribute in development of autoimmune disorders. Further various studies in mice models underscore the biological importance of A20 in prevention of inflammatory conditions. Dysregulated A20 is also been suggested as a link between prolonged inflammation and cancer by preliminary reports. This review summarizes the existing understanding and focuses on the new developments in the field of A20 biology. These developments highlight the importance of A20 in pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders and its scope as therapeutics and a biomarker.Autoimmunity 03/2014; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reverse reaction of ubiquitylation is catalyzed by different classes of deubiquitylation enzymes (DUBs), including ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing DUBs; experiments using Homo sapiens proteins have demonstrated that OTU DUBs modulate various cellular processes. With the exception of OTLD1, plant OTU DUBs have not been characterized. We identified 12 Arabidopsis thaliana OTU loci and analyzed 11 of the encoded proteins in vitro to determine their preferences for the ubiquitin (UB) chains of M1, K48, and K63 linkages as well as the UB-/RUB-/SUMO-GST fusions. The A. thaliana OTU DUBs were shown to be cysteine proteases and classified into four groups with distinct linkage preferences: OTU1 (M1 = K48 > K63), OTU3/4/7/10 (K63 > K48 > M1), OTU2/9 (K48 = K63), and OTU5/11/12/OTLD1 (inactive). Five active OTU DUBs (OTU3/4/7/9/10) also cleaved RUB fusion. OTU1/3/4 cleaved M1 UB chains, suggesting a possible role for M1 chains in plant cellular signaling. The different substrate specificities of the various A. thaliana OTU DUBs indicate the involvement of distinct structural elements; for example, the OTU1 oxyanion residue D89 is essential for cleaving isopeptide bond-linked chains but dispensable for M1 chains. UB-binding activities were detected only for OTU2 and OTLD1, with distinct linkage preferences. These differences in biochemical properties support the involvement of A. thaliana OTU DUBs in different functions. Moreover, based on the established phylogenetic tree, plant- and H. sapiens-specific clades exist, which suggests that the proteins within these clades have taxa-specific functions. We also detected five OTU clades that are conserved across species, which suggests that the orthologs in different species within each clade are involved in conserved cellular processes, such as ERAD and DNA damage responses. However, different linkage preferences have been detected among potential cross-species OTU orthologs, indicating functional and mechanistic differentiation.Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2014; 5:84. · 3.60 Impact Factor