Predictors of Cervical and Recurrent Laryngeal Lymph Node Metastases From Esophageal Cancer
ABSTRACT Although patients with esophageal cancer (EC) often develop lymph node metastases in the cervical and recurrent laryngeal (CRL) distribution, lymphadenectomy in this field is rarely performed. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with CRL node positivity and to determine the appropriate indications to perform a "three field" lymphadenectomy.
In a retrospective review, EC patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were analyzed. Predictors of positive CRL nodes were examined univariately, then selected for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model.
From 1994 to 2009, 185 patients had a three-field lymphadenectomy, of whom 46 patients (24.9%) had positive CRL nodes. Final pathology stages (seventh edition) were I in 24 patients, II in 43, III in 109, and IV in 1 patient. Eight patients had a major pathologic response after induction therapy. On univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with positive CRL nodes included squamous cell histology, proximal location, advanced clinical presentation, the presence of clinical nodal disease, higher pT classification, and higher pN classification. There was no reduction in the rate of positive CRL nodes after induction chemotherapy. On multivariate analysis, higher pN classification (adjusted odds ratio 16.25, 95% confidence interval: 5.40 to 48.87; p < 0.0001) and squamous histology (adjusted odds ratio 6.04, 95% confidence interval: 2.21 to 16.56; p < 0.0001) predicted positive CRL nodes.
Complete lymphadenectomy is necessary in esophageal cancer to appropriately stage patients. Low rates of positive CRL nodes are present with early clinical stage, with pT0-2 tumors, and with pN0 classification, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal junction tumors. Dissection of the CRL field should be considered with advanced disease for adenocarcinoma and in all patients with squamous cell cancer.
SourceAvailable from: Xiao Ming Zhang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate how patterns of lymph nodes recurrence after radical surgery impact on survival of patients with pT1-3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. One hundred eighty consecutive patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma underwent radical surgery, and the tumors were staged as pT1-3N0M0 by postoperative pathology. Lymph nodes recurrence was detected with computed tomography 3-120 months after the treatment. The patterns of lymph nodes recurrence including stations, fields and locations of recurrent lymph nodes, and impacts on patterns of survival were statistically analyzed. There was a decreasing trend of overall survival with increasing stations or fields of postoperative lymph nodes involved (all P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that stations or fields of lymph nodes recurrence, and abdominal or cervical lymph nodes involved were prognostic factors for survival (all P<0.05). Cox analyses revealed that the field was an independent factor (P<0.05, odds ratio=2.73). Lymph nodes involved occurred predominantly in cervix and upper mediastinum (P<0.05). In conclusion, patterns of lymph node recurrence especially the fields of lymph nodes involved are significant prognostic factors for survival of patients with pT1-3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.Journal of Korean medical science 02/2014; 29(2):217-23. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.2.217 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the present study was to clarify differences in node metastasis mode and clinical outcomes based on tumor location in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Participants comprised 228 patients with ESCC who underwent radical esophagectomy without preoperative supplement therapies. Lymph nodes were harvested from three fields: the neck, thorax, and abdomen. Patients were divided into three groups depending on tumor location [upper esophagus (UE), middle esophagus, or lower esophagus (LE)] and analyzed clinicopathologically. Results: The LE group showed significantly more progressive ESCC in terms of tumor invasion (p = 0.025), node metastasis (p = 0.0071), and TNM stage (p = 0.0043). The LE group revealed a tendency to metastasize to extrathoracic (especially abdominal) nodes (p = 0.0008). Recurrent laryngeal node metastasis was increased in the UE group (p = 0.016). However, no prognostic differences were detected between groups according to tumor location. Likewise, subgroup analyses by surgical approach (open thoracotomy vs. thoracoscopy) and cancer stage (stage I/II, III, and IV) did not reveal any significant prognostic impact of tumor location. Conclusion: Lymphatic spread varied by tumor location, but no prognostic impact of tumor location could be detected in patients with ESCC in spite of surgical approach or cancer stage. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.European Surgical Research 10/2013; 51(1-2):91-98. DOI:10.1159/000355680 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There have been many controversies about the optimal extent of lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer, whether three-field lymphadenectomy is superior to two-field lymphadenectomy with respect to the 5-year survival rate and perioperative morbidities and mortality. A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase for relevant studies comparing three-field and two-field lymphadenectomies for thoracic esophageal cancer was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards. Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted from these studies to give pooled estimates of the effect of the two surgical procedures on the 5-year survival rate and perioperative morbidities and mortality. Thirteen studies were included for analysis. Compared with two-field lymphadenectomy, three-field lymphadenectomy provided a higher 5-year survival rate (HR 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56 to 0.73, p = 0.000) and incidence of anastomotic leakage (HR 1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79, p = 0.000), with a comparative perioperative mortality (HR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.10, p = 0.110) and incidence of vocal cord palsy (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.54, p = 0.470) and pulmonary complications (HR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.12, p = 0.760). Published evidence indicated that three-field lymphadenectomy could be a priority for thoracic esophageal cancer, especially for tumors with positive lymph nodes. Given the lack of large-sample randomized controlled studies, further evaluations are necessary.The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2013; 96(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.06.050 · 3.45 Impact Factor