A trajectory analysis of alcohol and marijuana use among Latino adolescents in San Francisco, California.
ABSTRACT We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area.
A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14-19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership.
The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership.
Urban Latino adolescents' substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between the extent of cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood and later education, economic, employment, relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction outcomes. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 25 years. Measures of: cannabis use at ages 14-25; university degree attainment to age 25; income at age 25; welfare dependence during the period 21-25 years; unemployment 21-25 years; relationship quality; life satisfaction. Also, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability and adolescent and young adult mental health and substance use. There were statistically significant bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use at ages 14-21 and: lower levels of degree attainment by age 25 (P < 0.0001); lower income at age 25 (P < 0.01); higher levels of welfare dependence (P < 0.0001); higher unemployment (P < 0.0001); lower levels of relationship satisfaction (P < 0.001); and lower levels of life satisfaction (P < 0.0001). These associations were adjusted for a range of potentially confounding factors including: family socio-economic background; family functioning; exposure to child abuse; childhood and adolescent adjustment; early adolescent academic achievement; and comorbid mental disorders and substance use. After adjustment, the associations between increasing cannabis use and all outcome measures remained statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that increasing cannabis use in late adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in later life. High levels of cannabis use are related to poorer educational outcomes, lower income, greater welfare dependence and unemployment and lower relationship and life satisfaction. The findings add to a growing body of knowledge regarding the adverse consequences of heavy cannabis use.Addiction 06/2008; 103(6):969-76; discussion 977-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is the first study to examine the relationship between acculturation and alcohol use by gender and ethnicity using a nationally representative sample of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Specifically, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use and binge drinking for a sample that includes 6792 non-Hispanic whites, 910 Mexican Americans, 290 Cuban Americans, and 336 Puerto Ricans. Bivariate results reveal significant gender differences in alcohol use among first generation Mexican American, first generation Puerto Rican, and second generation Cuban American adolescents. In addition, these results indicate binge drinking differs significantly by gender among first generation Mexican American, first generation Cuban American, third plus generation Puerto Rican, and third plus generation non-Hispanic white adolescents. Multivariate logistic regression reveals that gender also moderates the effect of acculturation as well as ethnicity on alcohol use and abuse. Among both males and females, first generation immigrants are significantly less likely than third plus generation immigrants to use alcohol and binge drink while selective acculturation significantly reduces the odds of both behaviors. However, the effects of immigrant generation and selective acculturation on binge drinking are larger for females. Further, the trajectories that alcohol use and binge drinking follow with acculturation differ significantly by gender and ethnicity. These results reaffirm the need to further develop theoretical models and intervention strategies that are both gender-specific and culturally-specific, targeting high risk groups in particular in these efforts.Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 10/2008; 12(2):153-65. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper conducts a review of the literature on acculturation by Latino adolescents to traditional European-American cultural values and its effect on their substance-using behaviors. This review includes a critical analysis of studies that examine the effects of acculturation on the mental wellbeing of Latino adolescents. Recent findings documenting the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino adolescents are discussed. This paper also examines the limitations of the current research and proposes the development of acculturation scales that focus on measuring the role that predominant Latino and American values, attitudes, and norms play in the substance-use behavior of Latino adolescents. Additionally, the author proposes the development of a conceptual framework that accounts for the impact of acculturation-related stress and the mitigating factors affecting such stress on the substance-use behavior of Latino adolescents. The author asserts that understanding the effects of acculturation-related stress and accompanying mitigating factors could begin to explain the increasingly high rates of substance use reported for Latino adolescents. There is a discussion of research gaps and related research issues, and recommendations for future research are also made.Substance Use & Misuse 04/2002; 37(4):429-56. · 1.11 Impact Factor