Navitoclax, a targeted high-affinity inhibitor of BCL-2, in lymphoid malignancies: a phase 1 dose-escalation study of safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumour activity.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
The Lancet Oncology (Impact Factor: 24.73). 12/2010; 11(12):1149-59. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70261-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteins of the BCL-2 family regulate clonal selection and survival of lymphocytes, and are frequently overexpressed in lymphomas. Navitoclax is a targeted high-affinity small molecule that inhibits the anti-apoptotic activity of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of navitoclax in patients with lymphoid tumours, and establish the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles.
In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory lymphoid malignancies were enrolled and treated at seven sites in the USA between November, 2006, and November, 2009. A modified Fibonacci 3+3 design was used to assign patients to receive oral navitoclax once daily by one of two dosing schedules: intermittently for the first 14 days of a 21-day cycle (14/21) at doses of 10, 20, 40, 80, 110, 160, 225, 315, or 440 mg/day; or continuously for 21 days of a 21-day cycle (21/21) at doses of 200, 275, 325, or 425 mg/day. Study endpoints were safety, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects on platelets and T cells, and antitumour activity. This trial is registered with, number NCT00406809.
55 patients were enrolled (median age 59 years, IQR 51-67), 38 to receive the 14/21 dosing schedule, and 17 to receive the 21/21 dosing schedule. Common toxic effects included grade 1 or 2 anaemia (41 patients), infection (39), diarrhoea (31), nausea (29), and fatigue (21); and grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (29), lymphocytopenia (18), and neutropenia (18). On the intermittent 14/21 schedule, dose-limiting toxic effects were hospital admissions for bronchitis (one) and pleural effusion (one), grade 3 increase in aminotransferases (one), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (one), and grade 3 cardiac arrhythmia (one). To reduce platelet nadir associated with intermittent 14/21 dosing, we assessed a 150 mg/day lead-in dose followed by a continuous 21/21 dosing schedule. On the 21/21 dosing schedule, two patients did not complete the first cycle and were excluded from assessment of dose-limiting toxic effects; dose-limiting toxic effects were grade 4 thrombocytopenia (one), grade 3 increase in aminotransferases (one), and grade 3 gastrointestinal bleeding (one). Navitoclax showed a pharmacodynamic effect on circulating platelets and T cells. Clinical responses occurred across the range of doses and in several tumour types. Ten of 46 patients with assessable disease had a partial response, and these responders had median progression-free survival of 455 days (IQR 40-218).
Navitoclax has a novel mechanism of peripheral thrombocytopenia and T-cell lymphopenia, attributable to high-affinity inhibition of BCL-XL and BCL-2, respectively. On the basis of these findings, a 150 mg 7-day lead-in dose followed by a 325 mg dose administered on a continuous 21/21 dosing schedule was selected for phase 2 study.
Abbott Laboratories, Genentech, and National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Download full-text


Available from: Owen A O'Connor, Dec 25, 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a painful condition characterized by hemicranial pain, retroorbital pain, loss of vision, oculomotor nerve paralysis, and sensory loss in distribution of ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal nerve. Lymphomas rarely involve cavernous sinus and simulate Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Here we present a first case of double-hit B cell lymphoma (DHL) relapsing and masquerading as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. The neurological findings were explained by a lymphomatous infiltration of the right Gasserian ganglion which preceded systemic relapse. As part of this report, the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and double-hit lymphoma are reviewed and updated treatment recommendations are presented.
    03/2015; Case Reports in Oncological Medicine. DOI:10.1155/2015/249891
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic mutations in RAS or BRAF can drive the inappropriate activation of the ERK1/2. In many cases, tumour cells adapt to become addicted to this deregulated ERK1/2 signalling for their proliferation, providing a therapeutic window for tumour-selective growth inhibition. As a result, inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling by BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Indeed, the first BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, has now been approved for clinical use, while clinical evaluation of MEK1/2 inhibitors is at an advanced stage. Despite this progress, it is apparent that tumour cells adapt quickly to these new targeted agents so that tumours with acquired resistance can emerge within 6–9 months of primary treatment. One of the major reasons for this is that tumour cells typically respond to BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors by undergoing a G1 cell cycle arrest rather than dying. Indeed, although inhibition of ERK1/2 invariably increases the expression of pro-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins, tumour cells undergo minimal apoptosis. This cytostatic response may simply provide the cell with the opportunity to adapt and acquire resistance. Here we discuss recent studies that demonstrate that combination of BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors with inhibitors of pro-survival BCL2 proteins is synthetic lethal for ERK1/2-addicted tumour cells. This combination effectively transforms the cytostatic response of BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors into a striking apoptotic cell death response. This not only augments the primary efficacy of BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors but delays the onset of acquired resistance to these agents, validating their combination in the clinic. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit
    British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; 169(8). DOI:10.1111/bph.12220 · 4.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was once considered to be a single disease entity, recent biological insights have demonstrated that it can be divided up into at least three molecular subtypes. Gene expression profiling has revealed that DLBCL consists of a germinal center B-cell like subtype (GCB), an activated B-cell like subtype (ABC) and a primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtype (PMBL). These three entities arise from different stages of B-cell differentiation and are characterized by distinct mechanisms of oncogenic activation. In GCB DLBCL, the BCL6 transcription factor may play an important role in tumor survival and treatment resistance and strategies that target this are under investigation. ABC DLBCL is characterized by high expression of target genes of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/Rel family of transcription factors and strategies that target NF-κB are in clinical trials. PMBL is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that shares many molecular features with nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and may benefit from dose intensity approaches and inhibition of the Janus kinases. Other biologic predictive factors such as MYC and BCL2 may be overexpressed in both the GCB and ABC subtypes and strategies that target these complexes are also being tested.
    02/2013; 4(1):43-57. DOI:10.1177/2040620712464508