Long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication with RNA interference against cellular co-factors.
ABSTRACT In this study we tested whether HIV-1 replication could be inhibited by stable RNAi-mediated knockdown of cellular co-factors. Cell lines capable of expressing shRNAs against 30 candidate co-factors implicated at different steps of the viral replication cycle were generated and analyzed for effects on cell viability and inhibition of HIV-1 replication. For half of these candidate co-factors we obtained knockdown cell lines that are less susceptible to virus replication. For three co-factors (ALIX, ATG16 and TRBP) the cell lines were resistant to HIV-1 replication for up to 2 months. With these cells we could test the hypothesis that HIV-1 is not able to escape from RNAi-mediated suppression of cellular co-factors, which was indeed not detected.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly and indirectly impact tumorigenesis. To perform their myriad roles, not only must precise miRNAs be generated by miRNA machinery genes but these genes such as Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer1, XPO5, TRBP, and AGO2 also have specific expression patterns, protein binding partners, and biochemical capabilities in different cancers. The published studies have demonstrated that changeable expression levels of Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer, XPO5, AGO2 and TRBP were associated with several tumors such as breast, colorectal, gastric, lung, ovarian and prostate cancer and alterations in the miRNA machinery play important roles in the carcinogenesis of these tumors. Here, we review their biological structures and functions with an eye towards understanding they could serve as cancer biomarkers.Frontiers in Oncology 05/2014; 4:1-9.
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ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is one of the major coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and considered as an important therapeutic target. Knockdown of CXCR4 by RNA interference has emerged as a promising strategy for combating HIV-1 infection. However, there is a potential drawback to this strategy as undesired side effects may occur due to the loss of natural function of CXCR4. In this study, we developed a novel approach using a single lentiviral vector to express simultaneously CXCR4 dual-shRNAs and an shRNA-resistant CXCR4 mutant possessing the most possible natural functions of CXCR4 and reduced HIV-1 coreceptor activity. Via this approach we achieved the replacement of endogenous CXCR4 by CXCR4 mutant P191A that could compensate the functional loss of endogenous CXCR4 and significant reduction of HIV-1 replication by 59.2 %. Besides, we demonstrated that construction of recombinant lentiviral vector using 2A peptide-based strategy has significant advantages over using additional promoter-based strategy, including increase of lentivirus titer and avoidance of promoter competition. Therefore, the novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 without impairing its normal function provides a new strategy for CXCR4-targeted therapeutics for HIV-1 infection and potential universal applications to knock down a cellular protein in non-toxic manner.Molecular biotechnology. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: To improve the care of HIV-1/AIDS patients there is a critical need to develop tools capable of blocking viral evolution and circumventing therapy-associated problems. An emerging solution is gene therapy either as a stand-alone approach or as an adjuvant to pharmacological drug regimens. Combinatorial RNAi by multiplexing antiviral RNAi inhibitors through vector-mediated delivery has recently shown significant superiority over conventional mono-therapies. Viral as well as cellular co-factor targets have been identified, but they are generally attacked separately. Here, we hypothesized that a mixture of shRNAs directed against highly conserved viral RNA sequences and the mRNAs of cellular components that are involved in HIV replication could restrict mutational escape by enhanced synergistic inhibition. We screened for potent silencer cocktails blending inhibitors acting scattered along the viral replication cycle. The results show enhanced and extended suppression of viral replication for some combinations. To further explore the power of combinatorial approaches, we tested the influence of RNAi-mediated knockdown on the activity of conventional antiretroviral drugs (fusion, RT, integrase and protease inhibitors). We compared the fold-change in IC50 (FCIC50) of these drugs in cell lines stably expressing anti-HIV and anti-host shRNAs and measured increased values that are up by several logs for some combinations. We show that high levels of additivity and synergy can be obtained by combining gene therapy with conventional drugs. These results support the idea to validate the therapeutic potential of this anti-HIV approach in appropriate in vivo models.Antiviral research 02/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor