Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne pathogens
ABSTRACT Saliva has an important advantage over serum as a medium for antibody detection due to non-invasive sampling, which is critical for community-based epidemiological surveys. The development of a Luminex multiplex immunoassay for measurement of salivary IgG and IgA responses to potentially waterborne pathogens, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, and four noroviruses, involved selection of antigens and optimization of antigen coupling to Luminex microspheres. Coupling confirmation was conducted using antigen specific antibody or control sera at serial dilutions. Dose-response curves corresponding to different coupling conditions were compared using statistical tests. Control proteins in the specific antibody assay and a separate duplex assay for total immunoglobulins G and A were employed to assess antibody cross-reactivity and variability in saliva composition. 200 saliva samples prospectively collected from 20 adult volunteers and 10 paired sera from a subset of these volunteers were used to test this method. For chronic infections, H. pylori and T. gondii, individuals who tested IgG seropositive using commercial diagnostic ELISA also had the strongest salivary antibody responses in salivary antibody tests. A steep increase in anti-norovirus salivary antibody response (immunoconversion) was observed after an episode of acute diarrhea and vomiting in a volunteer. The Luminex assay also detected seroconversions to Cryptosporidium using control sera from infected children. Ongoing efforts involve further verification of salivary antibody tests and their application in larger pilot community studies.
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ABSTRACT: Sensitive measurement of multiple cytokine profiles from small mucosal tissue biopsies, for example human gastric biopsies obtained through an endoscope, is technically challenging. Multiplex methods such as Luminex assays offer an attractive solution but standard protocols are not available for tissue samples. We assessed the utility of three commercial Luminex kits (VersaMAP, Bio-Plex and MILLIPLEX) to measure interleukin-17A (IL-17) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) concentrations in human gastric biopsies and we optimised preparation of mucosal samples for this application. First, we assessed the technical performance, limits of sensitivity and linear dynamic ranges for each kit. Next we spiked human gastric biopsies with recombinant IL-17 and IFNγ at a range of concentrations (1.5 to 1,000 pg/mL) and assessed kit accuracy for spiked cytokine recovery and intra-assay precision. We also evaluated the impact of different tissue processing methods and extraction buffers on our results. Finally we assessed recovery of endogenous cytokines in unspiked samples. In terms of sensitivity, all of the kits performed well within the manufacturers' recommended standard curve ranges but the MILLIPLEX kit provided most consistent sensitivity for low cytokine concentrations. In the spiking experiments, the MILLIPLEX kit performed most consistently over the widest range of concentrations. For tissue processing, manual disruption provided significantly improved cytokine recovery over automated methods. Our selected kit and optimised protocol were further validated by measurement of relative cytokine levels in inflamed and uninflamed gastric mucosa using Luminex and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In summary, with proper optimisation Luminex kits (and for IL-17 and IFNγ the MILLIPLEX kit in particular) can be used for the sensitive detection of cytokines in mucosal biopsies. Our results should help other researchers seeking to quantify multiple low concentration cytokines in small tissue samples.Journal of immunological methods 05/2013; 394(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2013.04.009 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether early changes in 3[prime]-deoxy-3[prime]-3H-fluorothymidine (3H-FLT) uptake can reflect the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in a human tumor xenograft, in comparison with the histopathological markers, Ki-67 and phosphorylated EGFR (phospho-EGFR). An EGFR-dependent human tumor xenograft model (A431) was established in female BALB/c athymic mice, which were divided into three groups: one control group and two treatment groups. Mice in the treatment groups were orally administered a partial regression dose (100 mg/kg/day) or the maximum tolerated dose of gefitinib (200 mg/kg/day), once daily for 2 days. Mice in the control group were administered the vehicle (0.1% Tween 80). Tumor size was measured before and 3 days after the start of treatment. Biodistribution of 3H-FLT and 18F-FDG (%ID/g/kg) was examined 3 days after the start of the treatment. Tumor cell proliferative activity with Ki-67 was determined. Immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and measurement of phospho-EGFR were also performed. High expression levels of EGFR and Ki-67 were observed in the A431 tumor. After the treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg gefitinib, the uptake levels of 3H-FLT in the tumor were significantly reduced to 67% and 61% of the control value, respectively (0.39 +/- 0.09, 0.36 +/- 0.06, 0.59 +/- 0.11%ID/g/kg for 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and control groups, respectively; p < 0.01 vs. control), but those of 18F-FDG were not. After the treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg gefitinib, the expression levels of Ki-67 in the tumor were markedly decreased (4.6 +/- 2.4%, 6.2 +/- 1.8%, and 10.4 +/- 5.7% for 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and control groups, respectively, p < 0.01 vs. control). The expression levels of the phospho-EGFR protein also significantly decreased (29% and 21% of the control value for 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively p < 0.01 vs. control). There was no statistically significant difference in tumor size between pre- and post-treatments in each group. In our animal model, 3H-FLT uptake levels significantly decreased after the treatment with two different doses of gefitinib before a significant change in tumor size was observed. These results were confirmed by the immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 and phospho-EGFR protein immunoassay. Thus, it was indicated that early changes in 3H-FLT uptake may reflect the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in a mouse model of a human epidermoid cancer.BMC Cancer 11/2013; 13(1):525. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-525 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium spp are well recognised as causes of diarrhoeal disease during waterborne epidemics and in immunocompromised hosts. Studies have also drawn attention to an underestimated global burden and suggest major gaps in optimum diagnosis, treatment, and immunisation. Cryptosporidiosis is increasingly identified as an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies in low-resource settings and high-income countries have confirmed the importance of cryptosporidium as a cause of diarrhoea and childhood malnutrition. Diagnostic tests for cryptosporidium infection are suboptimum, necessitating specialised tests that are often insensitive. Antigen-detection and PCR improve sensitivity, and multiplexed antigen detection and molecular assays are underused. Therapy has some effect in healthy hosts and no proven efficacy in patients with AIDS. Use of cryptosporidium genomes has helped to identify promising therapeutic targets, and drugs are in development, but methods to assess the efficacy in vitro and in animals are not well standardised. Partial immunity after exposure suggests the potential for successful vaccines, and several are in development; however, surrogates of protection are not well defined. Improved methods for propagation and genetic manipulation of the organism would be significant advances.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70772-8 · 19.45 Impact Factor