Saliva has an important advantage over serum as a medium for antibody detection due to non-invasive sampling, which is critical for community-based epidemiological surveys. The development of a Luminex multiplex immunoassay for measurement of salivary IgG and IgA responses to potentially waterborne pathogens, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, and four noroviruses, involved selection of antigens and optimization of antigen coupling to Luminex microspheres. Coupling confirmation was conducted using antigen specific antibody or control sera at serial dilutions. Dose-response curves corresponding to different coupling conditions were compared using statistical tests. Control proteins in the specific antibody assay and a separate duplex assay for total immunoglobulins G and A were employed to assess antibody cross-reactivity and variability in saliva composition. 200 saliva samples prospectively collected from 20 adult volunteers and 10 paired sera from a subset of these volunteers were used to test this method. For chronic infections, H. pylori and T. gondii, individuals who tested IgG seropositive using commercial diagnostic ELISA also had the strongest salivary antibody responses in salivary antibody tests. A steep increase in anti-norovirus salivary antibody response (immunoconversion) was observed after an episode of acute diarrhea and vomiting in a volunteer. The Luminex assay also detected seroconversions to Cryptosporidium using control sera from infected children. Ongoing efforts involve further verification of salivary antibody tests and their application in larger pilot community studies.
"Finally, after washing off unbound Streptavidin-PE, the beads were suspended in Bio-Rad assay buffer and analyzed on a Bio-Rad 96-well plate reader using the Bio-Plex 200 Array System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.). The median fluorescence intensity (MFI) was calculated from a standard curve using Bio-Plex Manager software (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.)  and considered to be proportional to analyte concentration. The protein content in the lysates was determined by Bio-Rad DC protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether early changes in 3[prime]-deoxy-3[prime]-3H-fluorothymidine (3H-FLT) uptake can reflect the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in a human tumor xenograft, in comparison with the histopathological markers, Ki-67 and phosphorylated EGFR (phospho-EGFR).
An EGFR-dependent human tumor xenograft model (A431) was established in female BALB/c athymic mice, which were divided into three groups: one control group and two treatment groups. Mice in the treatment groups were orally administered a partial regression dose (100 mg/kg/day) or the maximum tolerated dose of gefitinib (200 mg/kg/day), once daily for 2 days. Mice in the control group were administered the vehicle (0.1% Tween 80). Tumor size was measured before and 3 days after the start of treatment. Biodistribution of 3H-FLT and 18F-FDG (%ID/g/kg) was examined 3 days after the start of the treatment. Tumor cell proliferative activity with Ki-67 was determined. Immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and measurement of phospho-EGFR were also performed.
High expression levels of EGFR and Ki-67 were observed in the A431 tumor. After the treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg gefitinib, the uptake levels of 3H-FLT in the tumor were significantly reduced to 67% and 61% of the control value, respectively (0.39 +/- 0.09, 0.36 +/- 0.06, 0.59 +/- 0.11%ID/g/kg for 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and control groups, respectively; p < 0.01 vs. control), but those of 18F-FDG were not. After the treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg gefitinib, the expression levels of Ki-67 in the tumor were markedly decreased (4.6 +/- 2.4%, 6.2 +/- 1.8%, and 10.4 +/- 5.7% for 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and control groups, respectively, p < 0.01 vs. control). The expression levels of the phospho-EGFR protein also significantly decreased (29% and 21% of the control value for 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively p < 0.01 vs. control). There was no statistically significant difference in tumor size between pre- and post-treatments in each group.
In our animal model, 3H-FLT uptake levels significantly decreased after the treatment with two different doses of gefitinib before a significant change in tumor size was observed. These results were confirmed by the immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 and phospho-EGFR protein immunoassay. Thus, it was indicated that early changes in 3H-FLT uptake may reflect the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in a mouse model of a human epidermoid cancer.
BMC Cancer 11/2013; 13(1):525. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-525 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Luminex-based methods have been used to assess murine immune responses to Hp infection (Taylor et al., 2008) and vaccination (Taylor et al., 2007) in splenocyte culture supernatant and recently to quantify gastric cytokine concentrations in Hp-infected mice (Schumacher et al., 2012). A method to measure Hp-specific IgG in human saliva samples has also been developed, using Luminex beads conjugated with antigens including Hp whole cell sonicate and recombinant urease (Griffin et al., 2011). However, to our knowledge, Luminex assays have not been optimised for human gastrointestinal mucosal tissue samples, though were recently used to quantify interleukin-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in gastric tissue samples (Serelli-Lee et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensitive measurement of multiple cytokine profiles from small mucosal tissue biopsies, for example human gastric biopsies obtained through an endoscope, is technically challenging. Multiplex methods such as Luminex assays offer an attractive solution but standard protocols are not available for tissue samples. We assessed the utility of three commercial Luminex kits (VersaMAP, Bio-Plex and MILLIPLEX) to measure interleukin-17A (IL-17) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) concentrations in human gastric biopsies and we optimised preparation of mucosal samples for this application. First, we assessed the technical performance, limits of sensitivity and linear dynamic ranges for each kit. Next we spiked human gastric biopsies with recombinant IL-17 and IFNγ at a range of concentrations (1.5 to 1,000 pg/mL) and assessed kit accuracy for spiked cytokine recovery and intra-assay precision. We also evaluated the impact of different tissue processing methods and extraction buffers on our results. Finally we assessed recovery of endogenous cytokines in unspiked samples. In terms of sensitivity, all of the kits performed well within the manufacturers' recommended standard curve ranges but the MILLIPLEX kit provided most consistent sensitivity for low cytokine concentrations. In the spiking experiments, the MILLIPLEX kit performed most consistently over the widest range of concentrations. For tissue processing, manual disruption provided significantly improved cytokine recovery over automated methods. Our selected kit and optimised protocol were further validated by measurement of relative cytokine levels in inflamed and uninflamed gastric mucosa using Luminex and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In summary, with proper optimisation Luminex kits (and for IL-17 and IFNγ the MILLIPLEX kit in particular) can be used for the sensitive detection of cytokines in mucosal biopsies. Our results should help other researchers seeking to quantify multiple low concentration cytokines in small tissue samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 pigs that were experimentally exposed to either PCV2, PRRSV, or both PCV2 and PRRSV were used to validate the microbead assay (MBA) in comparison with the "gold standard" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The kinetics of the PCV2- and PRRSV-specific antibody responses measured by the microbead assay were comparable to those of the standard assays; Spearman's rank correlations were 0.72 (P < 0.001) for PRRSV and 0.80 (P < 0.001) for PCV2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined using field sera whose positive or negative status was determined by the standard tests. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were both 98% for PCV2 and were 91% and 93%, respectively, for PRRSV (kappa coefficients, 0.85 and 0.67 for PCV2 and PRRSV, respectively). Multiplexing did not interfere with assay performance or diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, the described study demonstrates proof of concept for the development of more versatile and economical microbead array-based multiplex serological test panels for veterinary use.
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