Surface integrity of solvent-challenged ormocer-matrix composite.
ABSTRACT To investigate the surface integrity of solvent-challenged ormocer-matrix composites, photoactivated by different light exposure modes, through surface-hardness measurements at different periods of time; and to compare such behavior with dimethacrylate-based materials.
One hundred percent ormocer-based matrix (experimental ormocer (ORM)), a commercial mixed dimethacrylate-ormocer-based matrix (Admira (ADR)) and two commercial dimethacrylate-based matrix composites (experimental controls, (Grandio (GRD) and Premise (PRE)) were evaluated. Disk specimens (4 mm × 2 mm) were prepared from each material and light-activated using either a standard (S) or soft-start (SS) light exposure protocol with an LED-curing unit. Top, irradiated surface Knoop hardness (KHN) was measured within the following experimental groups (n=5): Group 1: immediately after exposure; Group 2: after dry and dark storage, Group 3: after storage in distilled water, and Group 4: immersion in absolute ethanol. Hardness of Groups 2-4 were measured after 7 days storage. Immediate hardness values were submitted to Student's t-tests separately for each material. Hardness values after treatments were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test to compare values among different storage media and light exposure mode protocols. Comparisons among materials were described using percentage of hardness change. Statistical testing was performed at a pre-set alpha of 0.05.
Immediate hardness values were not affected by the light exposure mode, regardless of the material. In general, exposure mode did not significantly affect hardness after 7 days storage, regardless of storage media or material. After 7 days dry storage, hardness values increased for all materials relative to immediate testing, and decreased after water and ethanol storage, with ethanol showing the greatest effect. The experimental ormocer-based material had the lowest percentage hardness change and thus proved more resistant to solvent degradation than the other materials, regardless of the light exposure method.
Irradiated surface hardness values and surface integrity were unaffected by light exposure mode, regardless of the material tested. The experimental ormocer-based material presented the least change in hardness as a result of solvent challenge than any of the commercial products: ormocer or conventional resin-based, and thus showed better surface integrity.
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ABSTRACT: With the intensification of the global climate anomalies, carbon dioxide has become an increasing concern as the major cause of global warming. Levying carbon tax is not only the economic mean to combat global warming, but also one of the important strategies to implement energy conservation and the sustainable development. The paper describes the necessity of levying carbon tax and progress of carbon tax at home and abroad, and then analyzes the impact of introduction of tax based on Tax Economics from micro and macro level. Finally, puts forward corresponding countermeasures.Energy Procedia 01/2011; 5:1968-1973.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polymerisation and ageing on the incremental bond strength (IBS) and fracture mechanics of experimental and commercial, well established ormocer-based materials. METHODS: An experimental dimethacrylate-diluent-free ormocer was compared with two commercial products (Admira (VOCO); Ceram X Duo (Dentsply)). For Ceram X Duo, the strength between dentin shades (DD) and between dentin and enamel shades (DE) was measured. In order to simulate clinical conditions, when a direct access to the composite surface is impeded, the curing unit was applied at different distances (1, 3 or 6 mm) from the sample's surface. IBS was measured after the samples were stored in distilled water (24 h/37 °C) and after ageing (5,000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C followed by storage (28 days/37 °C) in distilled water). Additionally, the degree of cure (DC) was measured in a thin film (~50 μm). A multivariate analysis, an additional one-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05), an independent t test (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics were used to assess the results. RESULTS: After 24 h, the values for IBS were statistically the same. Differences revealed after ageing, whereby the experimental material achieved the significant highest and Admira the lowest results. By evaluating after 24 h and after ageing, the experimental material obtained the smallest Weibull modulus "m". The predominant breaking mechanism is cohesive, even though the number decreases in favour for the mixture and adhesive fractures after ageing. Clear differences arose with regard to DC. The experimental material reached considerably lower values (31.9-33.2 %) unlike Ceram X Duo (45.6-48.3 %) and Admira (52.9-58.8 %). CONCLUSIONS: The IBS and the DC are far more dependent on the parameter filler volume percent and material than on the polymerisation distance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A dimethacrylate-diluent-free ormocer matrix offers a better stability opposite ageing but achieves a lower DC and reliability.Clinical Oral Investigations 09/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor