The fitness of FITS.

Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala St, Ste 407, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 12/2010; 110(12 Suppl):S8-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.024
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: China has made tremendous progress in its economic development in the past two decades. Accompanying this economic development has been an evident shift in the modes of transport, from walking and cycling to the use of motorcycles and, increasingly, four-wheel vehicles. Such changes are likely to have also produced changes in the patterns and numbers of road traffic injuries, including increases in motorcycle injuries. However, such changes have not been well documented. The work described in this paper sought, therefore, to document the changes in motorcycle ownership, motorcyclist mortality and injury rates in China since 1987. National traffic ownership and injury data from 1987 to 2001 were obtained from the National Bureau for Traffic Administration. Additionally, traffic ownership and injury records from 1997 to 2001 were collected from local police offices from 20 counties in Guangxi Region. Population data were obtained from the national and county statistics bureaus. Motorcycle ownership, fatality and injury trends over time were calculated. Nationally, motorcycles accounted for 23.4% of all registered motor vehicles in 1987, increasing to 63.2% in 2001. Motorcyclist fatalities and injuries increased 5.5-fold and 9.3-fold, respectively, between 1987 and 2001. In 1987, 7.5% of all traffic fatalities and 8.8% of all traffic injuries were sustained by motorcyclists, with the corresponding proportions increasing to 18.9% and 22.8%, respectively, in 2001. The changing proportions of both traffic fatalities and injuries sustained by motorcyclists were positively correlated with the change in the proportion of motorcycles among all motor vehicles. In the 20 counties in Guangxi, motorcyclist fatality and injury rates also increased between 1997 and 2001. Moreover, these rates were considerably higher than the national rates. Motorcyclist injury in China is a serious public health problem. Motorcyclist fatalities and injuries are likely to continue to increase unless appropriate intervention programmes are implemented.
    Injury Control and Safety Promotion 10/2004; 11(3):159-63. DOI:10.1080/156609704/233/289643
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    ABSTRACT: Motor vehicle crash fatality rates have been consistently higher in rural areas than in urban areas. However, the explanations for these differences are less clear. In this study the decomposition method was used to explore the factors associated with increased fatal crash involvement rates in rural communities. Using national databases, the fatal crash incidence density was decomposed into the product of three factors: the injury fatality rate, the crash injury rate, and the crash incidence density. As expected, the fatal crash incidence density was more than two times higher in rural than in urban areas. This was driven primarily by the injury fatality rate, which was almost three times higher in rural areas. Further research should examine the relative roles of crash severity and the timely receipt of definitive medical care after a crash.
    Injury Prevention 03/2005; 11(1):24-8. DOI:10.1136/ip.2004.005959 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The literature on motorcycling safety research is reviewed, and it is argued that there have been two main periods. The first, spanning the 1970's, was based on accident analysis, and the main objective was to identify and control factors that contribute to the severity of motorcycling accidents. The main concerns were to reduce head and brain injuries through safety helmets, to reduce multi-vehicle collisions through daytime use of headlamps, and to reduce drink-riding. The second period, the 1980's shifted the emphasis of research to what might be called 'riding analysis'--that is, analysis of the process of motorcycle riding. Particular attention was paid to skills testing, training evaluation and perceived risk. Now, in the early 1990's, a third period is developing, in which the rider is seen as 'active agent'. The theoretical basis of the new research has come from the models of social psychology, and the main concern is to use riders' beliefs and attitudes about safe riding to predict their behaviour on the roads and so their accident involvement. The three periods of research are reviewed in turn, and the paper concludes with an outline of the key research issues that remain to be addressed.
    Social Science & Medicine 09/1993; 37(3):419-29. DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(93)90272-6 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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