Fungal-associated NO is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress during rehydration in lichen symbiosis.

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Dpto. Biología y Geología, ESCET, Madrid, Spain.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.1). 01/2010; 10:297. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-297
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced in respiratory and photosynthetic electron chains and their production is enhanced during desiccation/rehydration. Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous and multifaceted molecule involved in cell signaling and abiotic stress. Lichens are poikilohydrous organisms that can survive continuous cycles of desiccation and rehydration. Although the production of ROS and NO was recently demonstrated during lichen rehydration, the functions of these compounds are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of NO during rehydration of the lichen Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its isolated photobiont partner Trebouxia sp. and Asterochloris erici (Ahmadjian) Skaloud et Peksa (SAG 32.85 = UTEX 911).
Rehydration of R. farinacea caused the release of ROS and NO evidenced by the fluorescent probes DCFH₂-DA and DAN respectively. However, a minimum in lipid peroxidation (MDA) was observed 2 h post-rehydration. The inhibition of NO in lichen thalli with c-PTIO resulted in increases in both ROS production and lipid peroxidation, which now peaked at 3 h, together with decreases in chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal photobleaching upon confocal laser incidence. Trebouxia sp. photobionts generate peaks of NO-endproducts in suspension and show high rates of photobleaching and ROS production under NO inhibition which also caused a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity of A. erici axenic cultures, probably due to the higher levels of photo-oxidative stress.
Mycobiont derived NO has an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress and in the photo-oxidative protection of photobionts in lichen thalli. The results point to the importance of NO in the early stages of lichen rehydration.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP.
    Environmental Pollution 09/2013; 179C:277-284. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The epiphytic lichen Ramalina farinacea is distributed throughout the northern hemisphere in which the same two algal Trebouxia species (provisionally named TR1 and TR9) coexist in every thallus. Ramalina farinacea symbionts were characterized based on the two fungal nuclear loci (nrITS and rpb2) along with the primary and secondary structures of nrITS from each Trebouxia species in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The results indicated a noticeable genetic differentiation between mycobionts from these two geographic areas and also suggested concerted changes in the three partners of a lichen symbiosis toward two clearly distinguishable 'holobiont' lineages. Modeling of ITS2 RNA secondary structures suggested their temperature sensitivity in TR1 but not in TR9, which was consistent with the observed superior physiological performance of TR9 phycobionts under relatively high temperatures. Both TR1 and TR9 phycobionts have been also found in a variety of taxonomically distinct lichens with a preferably Mediterranean distribution, being TR1 much more widespread than TR9. Our observations support a model in which ecological diversification and speciation of lichen symbionts in different habitats could include a transient phase consisting of associations with more than one photobiont in individual thalli. Such diversification is likely to be promoted by different physiological backgrounds.
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology 09/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of desiccation tolerance of lichens, and of their chlorobionts in particular, has frequently focused on the antioxidant system that protects the cell against photo-oxidative stress during dehydration/rehydration cycles. In this study we used proteomic and transcript analyses to assess the changes associated with desiccation in the isolated phycobiont Asterochloris erici. Algae were dried either slowly (5 - 6 h) or rapidly (< 60 min), and rehydrated after 24 h in the desiccated state. To identify proteins that accumulated during the drying or rehydration processes, we employed 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with individual protein identification using trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS. Proteomic analyses revealed that desiccation caused an increase in relative abundance of only 11-13 proteins, regardless of drying rate, involved in glycolisis, cellular protection, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and targeting and degradation. Transcripts of five Hsp90 and two β-tubulin genes accumulated primarily at the end of the dehydration process. In addition, TEM images indicate that ultrastructural cell injuries perhaps resulting from physical or mechanical stress rather than metabolic damage, were more intense after rapid dehydration. This occurred with no major change in the proteome. These results suggest that desiccation tolerance of A. erici is achieved by constitutive mechanisms.
    Plant Cell and Environment 09/2013; · 5.14 Impact Factor

Full-text (5 Sources)

Available from
Jun 6, 2014