Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Total Body Flow and Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion at Deep and Moderate Hypothermia
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.Artificial Organs (Impact Factor: 2.05). 11/2010; 34(11):980-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2010.01131.x
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature on cerebral oxygen metabolism at total body flow bypass and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP). Neonatal piglets were put on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the initial flow rate of 200mL/kg/min. After cooling to 18°C (n=6) or 25°C (n=7), flow was reduced to 100mL/kg/min (half-flow, HF) for 15min and ACP was initiated at 40mL/kg/min for 45min. Following rewarming, animals were weaned from bypass and survived for 4h. At baseline, HF, ACP, and 4 h post-CPB, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using fluorescent microspheres. Cerebral oxygen extraction (CEO(2) ) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2) ) were monitored. Regional cranial oxygen saturation (rSO(2) ) was continuously recorded throughout the procedure using near-infrared spectroscopy. At 18°C, CBF trended lower at HF and ACP and matched baseline after CPB. CEO(2) trended lower at HF and ACP, and trended higher after CPB compared with baseline. CMRO(2) at ACP matched that at HF. Cranial rSO(2) was significantly greater at HF and ACP (P<0.001, P<0.001) and matched baseline after CPB. At 25°C, CBF trended lower at HF, rebounded and trended higher at ACP, and matched baseline after CPB. CEO(2) was equal at HF and ACP and trended higher after CPB compared with baseline. CMRO(2) at ACP was greater than that at HF (P=0.001). Cranial rSO(2) was significantly greater at HF (P=0.01), equal at ACP, and lower after CPB (P=0.03). Lactate was significantly higher at all time points (P=0.036, P<0.001, and P<0.001). ACP provided sufficient oxygen to the brain at a total body flow rate of 100mL/kg/min at deep hypothermia. Although ACP provided minimum oxygenation to the brain which met the oxygen requirement, oxygen metabolism was altered during ACP at moderate hypothermia. ACP strategy at moderate hypothermia needs further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2010 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide such meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected and especially to those whose native tongue is not English. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers the quality expected from such a journal could not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.Artificial Organs 03/2011; 35(3):316-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01225.x · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malformations of the pulmonary arteries can increase right heart workload and result in morbidity, heart failure, and death. With the increased use of murine models to study these malformations, there is a pressing need for an accurate and noninvasive experimental technique that is capable of characterizing pulmonary arterial hemodynamics in these animals. We describe the growth trends of pulmonary arteries in 13 male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20, 36, 52, 100, and 160 days of age with the introduction of phase-contrast MRI as such a technique. PCMRI results correlated closely with cardiac output measurements by ultrasound echocardiography and with fluorescent microspheres in right-left lung flow split (flow partition). Mean flow, average cross-sectional area, distensibility, and shear rates for the right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA and LPA) were calculated. The RPA was larger and received more flow at all times than the LPA (P < 0.0001). Right-left flow split did not change significantly with age, and arterial distensibility was not significantly different between RPA and LPA, except at 160 days (P < 0.01). Shear rates were much higher for the LPA than the RPA (P < 0.0001) throughout development. The RPA and LPA showed different structure-function relationships but obeyed similar allometric scaling laws, with scaling exponents comparable to those of the main pulmonary artery. This study is the first to quantitatively describe changes in RPA and LPA flows and sizes with development and to apply phase-contrast MRI techniques to pulmonary arteries in rats.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 06/2011; 301(3):L368-79. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00069.2011 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is no question that the International Conference on Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Systems and Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Perfusion is a unique event that has had a significant impact on the treatment of neonatal, infantile, and pediatric cardiopulmonary patients around the globe since 2005. This annual event will continue as long as there is a need to fill the gap for underserved patient population. It will also continue to recognize promising young investigators based on their full manuscripts for young investigator awards.Artificial Organs 11/2012; 36(11):943-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2012.01563.x · 2.05 Impact Factor
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