Genetic variation and covariation in floral allocation of two species of Schiedea with contrasting levels of sexual dimorphism.
ABSTRACT The evolution of sexual dimorphism depends in part on the additive genetic variance-covariance matrices within females, within males, and across the sexes. We investigated quantitative genetics of floral biomass allocation in females and hermaphrodites of gynodioecious Schiedea adamantis (Caryophyllaceae). The G-matrices within females (G(f)), within hermaphrodites (G(m)), and between sexes (B) were compared to those for the closely related S. salicaria, which exhibits a lower frequency of females and less-pronounced sexual dimorphism. Additive genetic variation was detected in all measured traits in S. adamantis, with narrow-sense heritability from 0.34-1.0. Female allocation and floral size traits covaried more tightly than did those traits with allocation to stamens. Between-sex genetic correlations were all <1, indicating sex-specific expression of genes. Common principal-components analysis detected differences between G(f) and G(m) , suggesting potential for further independent evolution of the sexes. The two species of Schiedea differed in G(m) and especially so in G(f) , with S. adamantis showing greater genetic variation in capsule mass and tighter genetic covariation between female allocation traits and flower size in females. Despite greater sexual dimorphism in S. adamantis, genetic correlations between the two sexes (standardized elements of B) were similar to correlations between sexes in S. salicaria.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Comparing the covariation patterns of populations or species is a basic step in the evolutionary analysis of quantitative traits. Here I propose a new, simple method to make this comparison in two population samples that is based on comparing the variance explained in each sample by the eigenvectors of its own covariance matrix with that explained by the covariance matrix eigenvectors of the other sample. The rationale of this procedure is that the matrix eigenvectors of two similar samples would explain similar amounts of variance in the two samples. I use computer simulation and morphological covariance matrices from the two morphs in a marine snail hybrid zone to show how the proposed procedure can be used to measure the contribution of the matrices orientation and shape to the overall differentiation. RESULTS: I show how this procedure can detect even modest differences between matrices calculated with moderately sized samples, and how it can be used as the basis for more detailed analyses of the nature of these differences. CONCLUSIONS: The new procedure constitutes a useful resource for the comparison of covariance matrices.It could fill the gap between procedures resulting in a single, overall measure of differentiation, and analytical methods based on multiple model comparison not providing such a measure.BMC Evolutionary Biology 11/2012; 12(1):222. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) is a monophyletic genus of 34 species, all endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, that arose from a single colonization, providing one of the best examples of adaptive radiation in Hawai'i. Species utilize a range of habitats and exhibit a variety of growth forms and transitions in breeding systems from hermaphroditism toward dimorphism or autogamy. Our study included the most thorough sampling to date: 2-5 individuals per species and 4 independent genetic partitions: eight plastid and three low-copy nuclear loci (9217bps), allowing a three-locus BEST species tree. Despite incomplete resolution at the tips, our results support monophyly for each extant species. Gene trees revealed several clear cases of cytonuclear incongruence, likely created by interspecific introgression. Conflict occurs at the divergence of section Alphaschiedea as well as at the tips. Ages inferred from a BEAST analysis allow an original colonization onto either Nihoa or Kauaì and inform some aspects of inter-island migrations. We suggest that several hard polytomies on the species tree are biologically realistic, signifying either nearly simultaneous speciation or historical introgressive hybridization. Based on inferred node ages that exceed expected coalescent times, we propose that undetected nuclear introgression may play a larger role than incomplete lineage sorting in sections Schiedea and Mononeura.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 07/2011; 60(1):29-48. · 4.07 Impact Factor