Article

Genetic variation and covariation in floral allocation of two species of Schiedea with contrasting levels of sexual dimorphism.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.
Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.66). 11/2010; 65(3):757-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01172.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The evolution of sexual dimorphism depends in part on the additive genetic variance-covariance matrices within females, within males, and across the sexes. We investigated quantitative genetics of floral biomass allocation in females and hermaphrodites of gynodioecious Schiedea adamantis (Caryophyllaceae). The G-matrices within females (G(f)), within hermaphrodites (G(m)), and between sexes (B) were compared to those for the closely related S. salicaria, which exhibits a lower frequency of females and less-pronounced sexual dimorphism. Additive genetic variation was detected in all measured traits in S. adamantis, with narrow-sense heritability from 0.34-1.0. Female allocation and floral size traits covaried more tightly than did those traits with allocation to stamens. Between-sex genetic correlations were all <1, indicating sex-specific expression of genes. Common principal-components analysis detected differences between G(f) and G(m) , suggesting potential for further independent evolution of the sexes. The two species of Schiedea differed in G(m) and especially so in G(f) , with S. adamantis showing greater genetic variation in capsule mass and tighter genetic covariation between female allocation traits and flower size in females. Despite greater sexual dimorphism in S. adamantis, genetic correlations between the two sexes (standardized elements of B) were similar to correlations between sexes in S. salicaria.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Diane R Campbell, Jul 25, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii.
    Journal of Evolutionary Biology 01/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1111/jeb.12312 · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sexual differences are often dramatic and widespread across taxa. Their extravagance and ubiquity can be puzzling because the common underlying genome of males and females is expected to impede rather than foster phenotypic divergence. Widespread dimorphism, despite a shared genome, may be more readily explained by considering the multivariate, rather than univariate, framework governing the evolution of sexual dimorphism. In the univariate formulation, differences in genetic variances and a low intersexual genetic correlation (rMF) can facilitate the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, studies that have analysed sex-specific differences in heritabilities or genetic variances do not always find significant differences. Furthermore, many of the reported estimates of rMF are very high and positive. When monomorphic heritabilities and a high rMF are present together, the evolution of sexual dimorphism on a trait-by-trait basis is severely constrained. By contrast, the multivariate formulation has greater generality and more flexibility. Although the number of multivariate sexual dimorphism studies is low, almost all support sex-specific differences in the G (variance-covariance) matrix; G matrices can differ with respect to size and/or orientation, affecting the response to selection differently between the sexes. Second, whereas positive values of the univariate quantity rMF only hinder positive changes in sexual dimorphism, positive covariances in the intersexual covariance B matrix can either help or hinder. Similarly, the handful of studies reporting B matrices indicate that it is often asymmetric, so that B can affect the evolution of single traits differently between the sexes. Multivariate approaches typically demonstrate that genetic covariances among traits can strongly constrain trait evolution when compared with univariate approaches. By contrast, in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, a multivariate view potentially reveals more opportunities for sexual dimorphism to evolve by considering the effect sex-specific selection has on sex-specific G matrices and an asymmetric B matrix.
    Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10/2013; 26(10):2070-80. DOI:10.1111/jeb.12188 · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: • Premise of the study: Sex allocation models assume male and female traits are measured in a common currency, allocation traits show heritability, and tradeoffs between investment in the two sexual functions occur. The potential for model predictions and genetic parameters to depend on the currency used is not well understood, despite frequent use of measures not in a common currency.• Methods: We analyzed the relationship between common currency (biomass of carpels, seeds, and stamens) measures and morphological measures (numbers of ovules, seeds, and pollen) in Schiedea salicaria (12-13% females) and S. adamantis (39% females), two closely related gynodioecious species. Additionally, we compared heritabilities and genetic correlations for male and female allocation between these two types of measures.• Key results: Ovule, seed, and pollen number show greater sexual dimorphism in S. adamantis than in S. salicaria. Most but not all morphological traits and analogous biomass traits are highly correlated with a linear relationship. Narrow-sense heritabilities based on the two methods are often similar, but higher for ovule number than carpel mass and lower for anther number than stamen mass in S. adamantis. Neither trait type shows negative genetic correlations between male and female function.• Conclusions: Both trait types show greater sexual dimorphism in S. adamantis, and significant heritabilities suggest that morphological traits will continue to evolve with breeding system changes. Although most relationships between morphological and biomass traits are linear, curvilinear relationships for two traits suggest that caution is warranted if morphological and common currency traits are used interchangeably in fitness gain curves.
    American Journal of Botany 05/2013; 100(6). DOI:10.3732/ajb.1300045 · 2.46 Impact Factor