Bae H , Roberts DP , Lim HS , Strem MD , Park SC , Ryu CM , Melnick RL , Bailey BA. Endophytic Trichoderma Isolates from Tropical Environments Delay Disease Onset and Induce Resistance Against Phytophthora capsici in Hot Pepper Using Multiple Mechanisms. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. [corrected]
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 3.94). 03/2011; 24(3):336-51. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-09-10-0221
Source: PubMed


Endophytic Trichoderma isolates collected in tropical environments were evaluated for biocontrol activity against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum). Six isolates were tested for parasitic and antimicrobial activity against P. capsici and for endophytic and induced resistance capabilities in pepper. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 376f were P. capsici parasites, while DIS 70a, DIS 259j, DIS 320c, and DIS 376f metabolites inhibited P. capsici. All six isolates colonized roots but were inefficient stem colonizers. DIS 259j, DIS 320c, and DIS 376f induced defense-related expressed sequence tags (EST) in 32-day-old peppers. DIS 70a, DIS 259j, and DIS 376f delayed disease development. Initial colonization of roots by DIS 259j or DIS 376f induced EST with potential to impact Trichoderma endophytic colonization and disease development, including multiple lipid transferase protein (LTP)-like family members. The timing and intensity of induction varied between isolates. Expression of CaLTP-N, encoding a LTP-like protein in pepper, in N. benthamiana leaves reduced disease development in response to P. nicotianae inoculation, suggesting LTP are functional components of resistance induced by Trichoderma species. Trichoderma isolates were endophytic on pepper roots in which, depending on the isolate, they delayed disease development by P. capsici and induced strong and divergent defense reactions.

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    • "Several mechanisms are reported to work in many cases of individual beneficial plantmicrobe interactions [4]. As a consequence of the interaction of these bioagents [9] or plant colonization [10] [11], the proteome and transcriptome of the plants are reported to change. Thus, it is expected that these microorganisms may reprogramme the plant defense responses, resulting in alteration of plant responses to their environment [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 03/2015; 55(8). DOI:10.1002/jobm.201400628 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    • "Beneficial effects can occur for at least the first growing season: because the fungus grows and continues to colonize the roots, in turn the plant also shows increased growth. By this colonization and chemical communication, the physiology of the plant is strongly affected via changes in plant gene expression (Samolski et al. 2012; Bae et al. 2011; Shoresh et al. 2010). Thus, the fungus reprogrammes plant gene expression, resulting in an alteration of plant responses to their environment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trichoderma harzianum is a naturally occurring filamentous fungus which solubilizes mineral nutrients and inorganic fertilizers, increasing availability and uptake of nutrients to the plant. Rhizoctonia solani is a major problem for seedlings, causing damping-off and in mature plants causing foot and root rot in the tomato crop, reducing nutrient uptake. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum (BHU-51), Trichoderma harzianum (BHU-105) and their consortium Trichoderma harzianum (BHU-51+BHU-105) on management of R. solani and nutrient levels in the plants.The application of Trichoderma as a seed treatment significantly decreased the incidence of damping-off and increased the vigour index of the plants. The maximum reduction in disease incidence was recorded for the consortium (BHU-51+BHU-105) treatments. The mineral content in treated plants was also higher than untreated pathogen-inoculated controls. Field trials also showed that the consortium produced better results in terms of shoot length, chlorophyll content and yield than the control.The application of Trichoderma in consortium form increased mineral nutrient uptake, reduced disease incidence and obtained a greater yield with reduced chemical pesticide loads, benefitting farmers and consumers.
    07/2014; 16(1):29-38. DOI:10.4314/ejb.v16i1.4
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    • "Endophytic microorganisms are present in various plant species and rarely produce any disease symptoms (Borneman et al. 2000; Hanada et al. 2010; Teng et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2010; Bae et al. 2011; de Siqueira et al. 2011). The asymptomatic internal colonization of healthy plant tissue by microorganisms is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.
    Journal of Insect Science 12/2013; 13(151):1-12. DOI:10.1673/031.013.15101 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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