Article

Endophytic Trichoderma isolates from tropical environments delay disease onset and induce resistance against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper using multiple mechanisms.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. [corrected]
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 4.46). 03/2011; 24(3):336-51. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-09-10-0221
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endophytic Trichoderma isolates collected in tropical environments were evaluated for biocontrol activity against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum). Six isolates were tested for parasitic and antimicrobial activity against P. capsici and for endophytic and induced resistance capabilities in pepper. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 376f were P. capsici parasites, while DIS 70a, DIS 259j, DIS 320c, and DIS 376f metabolites inhibited P. capsici. All six isolates colonized roots but were inefficient stem colonizers. DIS 259j, DIS 320c, and DIS 376f induced defense-related expressed sequence tags (EST) in 32-day-old peppers. DIS 70a, DIS 259j, and DIS 376f delayed disease development. Initial colonization of roots by DIS 259j or DIS 376f induced EST with potential to impact Trichoderma endophytic colonization and disease development, including multiple lipid transferase protein (LTP)-like family members. The timing and intensity of induction varied between isolates. Expression of CaLTP-N, encoding a LTP-like protein in pepper, in N. benthamiana leaves reduced disease development in response to P. nicotianae inoculation, suggesting LTP are functional components of resistance induced by Trichoderma species. Trichoderma isolates were endophytic on pepper roots in which, depending on the isolate, they delayed disease development by P. capsici and induced strong and divergent defense reactions.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
171 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trichoderma harzianum is one of rhizosphere fungus usually lives near the plant root regions in the soil. T. harzianum plays an important role in plant growth promotion and increases disease resistance against various plant pathogens on crops. In this study, the strain T. harzianum MPA167 was isolated from the barley rhizosphere soil in Suwon, Korea. Among 183 isolates, the strain T. harzianum MPA167 was selected as promising strain in which based on hyperparasitical activity against Phytophthora capsici and estimated disease control activity against P. capsici in the greenhouse conditions. The strain T. harzianum MPA167 was identified using 23s rDNA internal transcribed spacer(ITS) region sequences. MPA167 treatment ( spores/ml) showed greater disease suppression against Phytophthora blight of red-pepper caused by P. capsici in greenhouse compared with the water-treated control. Volatiles derived from T. harzianum MPA167 elicit growth promotion of tobacco and Arabidopsis seedlings in I-plate assay. In addition, T. harzianum MPA167 strain was also found to be effective for the growth promotion and induction of systemic resistance on red-papper plant. These results suggest that MPA167 might be used as one of the potential biocontrol agents.
    The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science. 12/2013; 17(4).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The antagonistic potential of salinity tolerant (ST) Trichoderma (Th) isolates against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (foc) was tested, along with their capability to induce relative salt stress tolerance in chickpea with the aim to exploit their use as biological agents in reducing deleterious effects of salinity and controlling Fusarium wilt of chickpea under saline soil conditions. Under laboratory conditions, salt stress was created by supplementing nutrient medium with different concentrations of NaCl viz. 0, 70, 150 and 240 mM NaCl and a pot experiment was conducted using natural saline soil (EC – 6.6 dS m−1). Out of 45 Th isolates studied, only five isolates viz. Th-13, Th-14, Th-19, Th-33 and Th-50 were selected to be ST as these were able to grow and sporulate in growth medium containing up to 240 mM NaCl. In saline medium, ST isolates greatly surpassed salinity sensitive (SS) isolate with respect to growth rate, mycelial dry weight, sporulation and biological proficiency against foc. Out of five ST isolates that retained their tolerance to different salt stress levels, Th-14 and Th-19 showed maximum antagonism against foc. Under greenhouse conditions, chickpea plants obtained from seeds bioprimed with Th-14 and Th-19 performed well both at germination and seedling stage in comparison to control in saline soil. As compared to untreated plants, characterisation of Th treated plants confirmed that they had reinforced contents of proline along with relatively higher levels of total phenols, membrane stability index and superoxide dismutase activity while lower accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondealdehyde contents. ST isolates, Th-14 and Th-19 significantly reduced foc-induced wilt disease incidence in chickpea plants. The population density of both the Th isolates in rhizosphere far exceeded that of foc under both saline and non-saline soils. However, Th-14 was found more efficient in increasing relative salt stress tolerance in chickpea and reducing the foc growth in rhizosphere under present materials and conditions. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategy to alleviate salt stress and manage fungal diseases such as foc that aggravates under saline soils.
    Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 07/2013; 46(12).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM (T22) on the growth and development of maize (Zea mays) plants. T. harzianum was applied to the grains in two different treatments, either by inoculating the soil with air-dried mycelia of T. harzianum or by treating the seeds with different concentrations of the metabolic solution (as the culture supernatant of T. harzianum) before sowing. Comparisons were made between the two treatments to determine if any beneficial effects for improving the growth of maize plants occurred. Results revealed that application of the highest concentration of air-dried mycelia and all concentrations of the metabolic solution of T. harzianum caused increases in all measured parameters which include growth parameters, chlorophyll content, starch content, nucleic acids content, total protein content and phytohormone content of maize plants but the magnitude of these increases was much more pronounced in case of treating the seeds with the metabolic solution of T. harzianum.
    Journal of Plant Nutrition 01/2014; 37(1). · 0.54 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
162 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014