Linkage disequilibrium and historical effective population size in the Thoroughbred horse.
ABSTRACT Many genomic methodologies rely on the presence and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and genetic variants underlying traits of interest, but the extent of LD in the horse has yet to be comprehensively characterized. In this study, we evaluate the extent and decay of LD in a sample of 817 Thoroughbreds. Horses were genotyped for over 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers across the genome, with 34,848 autosomal SNPs used in the final analysis. Linkage disequilibrium, as measured by the squared correlation coefficient (r(2)), was found to be relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 5 kb) and to extend over long distances, with average r(2) maintained above non-syntenic levels for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) up to 20 Mb apart. Using formulae which relate expected LD to effective population size (N(e)), and assuming a constant actual population size, N(e) was estimated to be 100 in our population. Values of historical N(e), calculated assuming linear population growth, suggested a decrease in N(e) since the distant past, reaching a minimum twenty generations ago, followed by a subsequent increase until the present time. The qualitative trends observed in N(e) can be rationalized by current knowledge of the history of the Thoroughbred breed, and inbreeding statistics obtained from published pedigree analyses are in agreement with observed values of N(e). Given the high LD observed and the small estimated N(e), genomic methodologies such as genomic selection could feasibly be applied to this population using the existing SNP marker set.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in the Domestic Cat, Felis silvestris catus, and Its Breeds.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Domestic cats have a unique breeding history and can be used as models for human hereditary and infectious diseases. In the current era of genome-wide association studies, insights regarding linkage disequilibrium (LD) are essential for efficient association studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent of LD in the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, particularly within its breeds. A custom illumina GoldenGate Assay consisting of 1536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) equally divided over ten 1 Mb chromosomal regions was developed, and genotyped across 18 globally recognized cat breeds and two distinct random bred populations. The pair-wise LD descriptive measure (r(2)) was calculated between the SNPs in each region and within each population independently. LD decay was estimated by determining the non-linear least-squares of all pair-wise estimates as a function of distance using established models. The point of 50% decay of r(2) was used to compare the extent of LD between breeds. The longest extent of LD was observed in the Burmese breed, where the distance at which r(2) ≈ 0.25 was ∼380 kb, comparable to several horse and dog breeds. The shortest extent of LD was found in the Siberian breed, with an r(2) ≈ 0.25 at approximately 17 kb, comparable to random bred cats and human populations. A comprehensive haplotype analysis was also conducted. The haplotype structure of each region within each breed mirrored the LD estimates. The LD of cat breeds largely reflects the breeds' population history and breeding strategies. Understanding LD in diverse populations will contribute to an efficient use of the newly developed SNP array for the cat in the design of genome-wide association studies, as well as to the interpretation of results for the fine mapping of disease and phenotypic traits.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53537. · 4.09 Impact Factor