ATRIBUTOS DE CALIDAD Y VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE FRUTOS DE CULTIVARES DE CHILE SERRANO EN MÉXICO
ABSTRACT El chile Serrano (Capsicum annuum L.) se consume en México básicamente en fresco, por lo que la calidad y la vida de anaquel de sus frutos son factores importantes en su comercialización; sin embargo, la literatura científica sobre esta temática es escasa. En este estudio se cuantificaron los atributos de calidad y vida de anaquel de 19 cultivares de chile Serrano desarrollados por el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) y por varias compañías particulares de semillas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con 10 repeticiones, y cada fruto se consideró como una repetición. Se encontraron diferencias entre cultivares en peso de fruto, diámetro, longitud, firmeza, color (croma y tono o hue) y pérdida fisiológica de peso. Los cultivares 'Bandido' y 'HMX-5651' superaron (P ¿ 0.01) a los demás en peso e intensidad de color. Los materiales 'HMX-6671', 'HMX-6661', 'Blakie' y 'HS-44' destacaron por su intensidad de color. 'Centauro' fue el material con mayor valor de firmeza (P ¿ 0.01). Los materiales 'HS-49', 'HS-51', '21-20-1' y '74-5-5' registraron altos valores de firmeza y bajos porcentajes de pérdida de peso. Los cultivares '74-27-5', ¿Tampiqueño 74' y '33-12-2' presentaron valores bajos de pérdida de peso. Los materiales desarrollados por las compañías particulares sobresalieron por su mayor peso e intensidad de color, mientras que los cultivares desarrollados por el INIFAP destacaron por su mayor firmeza y menor pérdida de peso.
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ABSTRACT: The principal physiological factors that negatively impact pepper fruit during shipment and storage and subsequent marketing are water loss and chilling injury. The current study evaluated the effect of harvest methodology on postharvest water loss from sweet bell pepper fruit and the potential relationship between water loss and chilling injury in cold-stored fruit. The influence of cultivar, epicuticular wax, and AOX gene expression on water loss and chilling injury were examined. Our results demonstrated that the degree of water loss in pepper fruit is subject to effects of genotype and pre- and postharvest environments as evidenced by year to year variation in fruit storage attributes. A comparison of pepper fruit harvest methods, wherein peduncles were either torn or cut, showed that harvest method had little effect on percent water loss. Observations on fruit water loss in relation to fruit size suggested that fruit cuticles are the primary barrier to water loss. A clear relationship between epicuticular wax content and fruit water loss was not evident. Cultivars varied in their susceptibility to chilling injury and fruit water loss was positively correlated with the severity of chilling injury. No correlation was found between endogenous AOX transcript levels and cultivar-specific susceptibility to chilling injury. The results illustrate the difficulty of identifying indices correlated with water loss that could be used to develop or identify cultivars with improved storability. We did, however, find that there are significant differences in storage attributes of pepper cultivars and that routine screening for water loss and chilling injury are advantageous for selection of cultivars most suitable for cold-storage.Postharvest Biology and Technology 12/2006; DOI:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.06.013 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work describes physiological behavior in four accessions of hot pepper species (Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense) coming from the amazonic pepper germplasm bank collection from the Amazonic Institute of Scientific Research SINCHI . Fruits from all accessions were harvested weekly from set to ripening stage in orchards from Leticia in the Colombian Amazonic region. Fruits exhibited no climacteric pattern with respiration rate lower than 100 mg CO2·kg-1·h-1 and ethylene production below 0.01 µL C2H4·kg-1·h-1. In accession CS 049 (C. chinense), color change from pale green to red was evident only at full ripening stage. In accessions CS-219 and CS-376, color measured by Hue angle or H* changed from green (H*=104o) to yellow (H*=79o) or orange (H*=57o), respectively, and was useful as maturity index. CS 032 accession remains purple (H*=29o) during development. Maximum color turning was concomitant with accumulation of citric and ascorbic acid, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, and relatively little changes in pH, soluble solids and acidity. The accessions were susceptible to chilling injury (pitting) at 5oC. Commercial shelf-life periods (as evaluated by shriveling at 12oC and 95% R.H.) were two weeks in CS49 and CS376, above 3 weeks for CS219, and below 1 week for accession CS032.
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ABSTRACT: Quality of bell peppers after harvest is largely influenced by water loss from the fruit. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fruit fresh weight, size, and stage of ripeness on the rate of water loss and permeance to water vapor. Fruit diameter was correlated with fresh weight, and surface area was associated with fresh weight and diameter. Fruit surface area decreased logarithmically with increases in fruit size, with smaller fruit showing larger changes in surface area than larger fruit. Mean water loss rate for individual fruit and permeance to water vapor declined with increases in fruit size and as fruit ripeness progressed. Fruit surface area/fresh weight ratio and rate of water loss were both highest in immature fruit and showed no differences between mature green and red fruit. In mature fruit, permeance to water vapor for the skin and calyx were 29 µmol m−2 s−1 kPa−1 and 398 µmol m−2 s−1 kPa−1, respectively. About 26% of the water loss in mature fruit occurred through the calyx. There was a decline in firmness, water loss rate, and permeance to water vapor of the fruit with increasing fruit water loss during storage. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical IndustryJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2007; 87(1):68 - 73. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2672 · 1.88 Impact Factor