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ATRIBUTOS DE CALIDAD Y VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE FRUTOS DE CULTIVARES DE CHILE SERRANO EN MÉXICO

ABSTRACT El chile Serrano (Capsicum annuum L.) se consume en México básicamente en fresco, por lo que la calidad y la vida de anaquel de sus frutos son factores importantes en su comercialización; sin embargo, la literatura científica sobre esta temática es escasa. En este estudio se cuantificaron los atributos de calidad y vida de anaquel de 19 cultivares de chile Serrano desarrollados por el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) y por varias compañías particulares de semillas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con 10 repeticiones, y cada fruto se consideró como una repetición. Se encontraron diferencias entre cultivares en peso de fruto, diámetro, longitud, firmeza, color (croma y tono o hue) y pérdida fisiológica de peso. Los cultivares 'Bandido' y 'HMX-5651' superaron (P ¿ 0.01) a los demás en peso e intensidad de color. Los materiales 'HMX-6671', 'HMX-6661', 'Blakie' y 'HS-44' destacaron por su intensidad de color. 'Centauro' fue el material con mayor valor de firmeza (P ¿ 0.01). Los materiales 'HS-49', 'HS-51', '21-20-1' y '74-5-5' registraron altos valores de firmeza y bajos porcentajes de pérdida de peso. Los cultivares '74-27-5', ¿Tampiqueño 74' y '33-12-2' presentaron valores bajos de pérdida de peso. Los materiales desarrollados por las compañías particulares sobresalieron por su mayor peso e intensidad de color, mientras que los cultivares desarrollados por el INIFAP destacaron por su mayor firmeza y menor pérdida de peso.

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May 22, 2014