Antimicrobial Activity of Solanum torvum Swart. Against Important Seed Borne Pathogens of Paddy

Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ


Aqueous and Solvent extracts of leaves of S. torvum viz., Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Methanol and Ethanol were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity following the procedures of poisoned food technique and cup diffusion method against some important seed borne pathogens of paddy viz, Pyricularia oryzae, Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris oryzae, Tricoconis padwickii, Dreschlera tetramera, D. halodes, Curvularia lunata, F. oxysporum, F. moniliformae, F. solani and Xanthomonas oryzae. Aqueous extracts of leaves (at 25% concentration) showed 100, 47.44, 60.47, 71.50, 56.11, 63.33, 78.62, 66.66, 47.44 and 46.27% inhibition of the test pathogens respectively. Highly significant antifungal activity was observed in Methanolic and ethanolic extract. The percentage inhibition of the test pathogenic fungi in Methanolic extract was 100% (P.oryzae), 74.42 (A. alternata), 65.68 (B oryzae), 87.62 (C .lunata), 100% (T. padwickii), 63.33 (D.halodes), 60.31 D. (tetramera), 76.01 (F.moniliformae), 59.21 (F. oxysporum), 43.91% (F.solani) and zone of inhibition of Xanthomonas campestris pv oryzae was 18 and 30mm in Methanol and ethanol extract.

Download full-text


Available from: Raveesha Koteshwar Anandarao, Dec 05, 2014
  • Source
    • "Balachandran et al. (2012) reported the antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activities of methyl caffeate isolated from S. torvum fruit. Although the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of S. torvum leaves has been reported earlier (Bari et al. 2010; Lalitha et al. 2010), there are no reports on active compound responsible for antifungal activity of S. torvum leaves. In this context, an attempt has been made to identify the active compound responsible for antifungal activity as well as its effect on mycotoxin biosynthesis by A. flavus and F. verticillioides. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: The main objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of Solanum torvum leaves against different field and storage fungi, and to identify its active compound. Also, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory efficacy on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Methods and results: Leaves of S. torvum were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, toluene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. The antifungal compound isolated from chloroform extract was identified as torvoside K based on spectral analysis. The antifungal activity of chloroform extract and torvoside K was determined by broth microdilution and poisoned food techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and zone of inhibition (ZOI) were recorded. Further, inhibitory effects of chloroform extract and torvoside K on growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides, and their toxin productions were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. Torvoside K showed the significant activity against tested fungi with ZOIs and MICs ranging from 33.4 to 87.4% and 31.25-250 μg ml(-1) , respectively. Further, Torvoside K showed concentration-dependent antimycotoxigenic activity against aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 production by A. flavus and F. verticillioides, respectively. Conclusions: It was observed that the compound torvoside K significantly inhibited the growth of all fungi tested. Growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides, and aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 productions were completely inhibited in vitro and in vivo by torvoside K with increasing concentration. Significance and impact of the study: Control of mycotoxigenic fungi requires compounds that able to inhibit both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. The antimycotoxigenic potential of torvoside K of S. torvum is described in this study for the first time. The results indicate the possible use of S. torvum as source of antifungal agents against post-harvest fungal infestation of food commodities and mycotoxin contaminations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/jam.12956 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Medicinal and aromatic plants, a gift of nature, are being used against various infections and diseases in the world since past history. Only a small percentage of plants species have been investigated phytochemically and the fraction submitted to biological screening is even smaller [3] . Plant kingdom represents an extraordinary reservoir of novel molecules. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of seeds and fruits of Illicium griffithii (I. griffithii) (Family: Schisandraceae). Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the organic extracts were determined using disc diffusion assay against Gram-positive bacterial strains (three reference cultures and three clinical isolates), Gram-negative bacterial strains (nine reference cultures and six clinical isolates), and six fungi. The primary phytochemical and chemical compositions were analyzed using qualitative chemical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of fruits was effective against most of the tested reference cultures such as Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella paratyphi, Enterococcus feacalis, Xanthomonas oryzae and Pseudomonas aerugenosa, whereas methanol extract showed activity only against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Xanthomonas oryzae. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits were more effective against most of the clinical isolates, whereas methanol extract was effective only against Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL. The extracts of fruits and seeds did not show any significant antifungal activity against tested fungi. The presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponis and carbohydrates in the different extracts was established. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies on hexane and ethyl acetate extract of fruits resulted in the identification of 31 and 39 compounds respectively. Conclusions: Potent antibacterial phytochemicals are present in ethyl acetate extract of I. griffithii fruits. Further studies are needed to investigate activities of I. griffithii against multidrug resistant bacteria.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 06/2012; volume 2(issue 3):190-199. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60045-0
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants synthesize a vast array of secondary metabolites that are important for human life. This paper investigates Illicium verum Hook (star anise), for screening phytochemicals, proximate and mineral contents using hydro extract. Hydro extracts showing presence of phytochemicals alkaloids, phenols, flavanoids and steroids. Proximate study showed protein, fat, ash and carbohydrates. Presence of ash percentage highlights the good enough minerals present in star anise. As a result of this experiment, this plant can be candidate for further studies expected due to their antioxidant components present in that.
    World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 02/2014; 3(2):2888-2896.
Show more