Antimicrobial Activity of Solanum torvum Swart. Against Important Seed Borne Pathogens of Paddy

Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Aqueous and Solvent extracts of leaves of S. torvum viz., Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Methanol and Ethanol were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity following the procedures of poisoned food technique and cup diffusion method against some important seed borne pathogens of paddy viz, Pyricularia oryzae, Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris oryzae, Tricoconis padwickii, Dreschlera tetramera, D. halodes, Curvularia lunata, F. oxysporum, F. moniliformae, F. solani and Xanthomonas oryzae. Aqueous extracts of leaves (at 25% concentration) showed 100, 47.44, 60.47, 71.50, 56.11, 63.33, 78.62, 66.66, 47.44 and 46.27% inhibition of the test pathogens respectively. Highly significant antifungal activity was observed in Methanolic and ethanolic extract. The percentage inhibition of the test pathogenic fungi in Methanolic extract was 100% (P.oryzae), 74.42 (A. alternata), 65.68 (B oryzae), 87.62 (C .lunata), 100% (T. padwickii), 63.33 (D.halodes), 60.31 D. (tetramera), 76.01 (F.moniliformae), 59.21 (F. oxysporum), 43.91% (F.solani) and zone of inhibition of Xanthomonas campestris pv oryzae was 18 and 30mm in Methanol and ethanol extract.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of seeds and fruits of Illicium griffithii (I. griffithii) (Family: Schisandraceae). Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the organic extracts were determined using disc diffusion assay against Gram-positive bacterial strains (three reference cultures and three clinical isolates), Gram-negative bacterial strains (nine reference cultures and six clinical isolates), and six fungi. The primary phytochemical and chemical compositions were analyzed using qualitative chemical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of fruits was effective against most of the tested reference cultures such as Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella paratyphi, Enterococcus feacalis, Xanthomonas oryzae and Pseudomonas aerugenosa, whereas methanol extract showed activity only against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Xanthomonas oryzae. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits were more effective against most of the clinical isolates, whereas methanol extract was effective only against Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL. The extracts of fruits and seeds did not show any significant antifungal activity against tested fungi. The presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponis and carbohydrates in the different extracts was established. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies on hexane and ethyl acetate extract of fruits resulted in the identification of 31 and 39 compounds respectively. Conclusions: Potent antibacterial phytochemicals are present in ethyl acetate extract of I. griffithii fruits. Further studies are needed to investigate activities of I. griffithii against multidrug resistant bacteria.
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