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La cronología de Chavín de Huántar y sus implicancias para el Periodo Formativo

Daniel A. Contreras 01/2011;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Chavín de Huantar es uno de los sitios fundamentales para entender el Periodo Formativo en los Andes centrales. Ironicamente, a pesar de muchas decadas de investigaciones realizadas por docenas de investigadores, su cronologia es todavia debatida e insegura. Este articulo presenta una reseña de la evidencia historica para la cronologia de Chavin, enfatizando la contribucion de los fechados radiocarbonicos calibrados y, de manera breve, revisando los que están temporalmente relacionados con otros sitios formativos. Se analizan, tambien, los numerosos fechados de carbono-14 asociados a ceramica y contextos arquitectonicos conocidos en Chavin derivados de estudios recientes. De hecho, muchos fechados de Chavin y sitios relacionados concuerdan en ubicar a la ceramica negra pulida estampada, denominada janabarroide, alrededor de 800-500 a.C. (calib.). La presencia de ocupaciones anteriores y posteriores, documentadas con fechados, ayudan a confirmar este rango temporal para materiales reconocidos del "Horizonte Temprano». En contraste con algunos otros importantes sitios formativos, Chavin deja de funcionar como templo hacia 500 a.C. (calib.), aunque los esfuerzos destinados a las construcciones principales ya estaban disminuyendo, de manera notable, antes de esta epoca.Chavin de Huantar is one of the key sites of the Formative Period in the Central Andes, with many decades of investigations by dozens of investigators, but ironically its chronology is still poorly defined and contested. This article reviews the historical evidence for Chavin chronology, emphasizing an examination of calibrated radiocarbon dates, and summarily reviewing related radiocarbon evidence from approximately contemporary sites. The more voluminous C14 evidence from recent work at Chavin is then examined, particularly focused on dates from known ceramic and architectural contexts. A large number of determinations concur, both in and outside of Chavin, in dating stamped polished blackware "janabarroid" ceramics in the range of 800-500 BC in calibrated age. Earlier and later occupations at Chavin are documented, helping confirm this time range for «Early Horizon» materials. Chavin, unlike some other important Formative sites, loses its temple function by around 500 BC calibrated, although major construction seems to have greatly decreased well before that time.

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    ABSTRACT: Over the pre-Columbian sequence, Andean warfare ranged greatly in intensity. This review combines published information on cranial trauma and settlement patterns, which often align and clarify each other, to make an initial assessment of how severely Andean populations were affected by war over time and space. The data speak to a number of major topics in the archaeology of warfare, such as the origin of war, contrasts in state militarism, and changes in the practice of war related to social organization. Although there is considerable regional variation, two large-scale ‘‘waves’’ of escalated conflict that are clearly supported by the cranial trauma and settlement pattern data occurred in the Final Formative (late Early Horizon, 400 BC–AD 100) and the Late Intermediate period (AD 1000–1400).
    Journal of Archaeological Research 01/2013;

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