La cronología de Chavín de Huántar y sus implicancias para el Periodo Formativo

Daniel A. Contreras 01/2011; 13.
Source: OAI


Chavín de Huantar es uno de los sitios fundamentales para entender el Periodo Formativo en los Andes centrales. Ironicamente, a pesar de muchas decadas de investigaciones realizadas por docenas de investigadores, su cronologia es todavia debatida e insegura. Este articulo presenta una reseña de la evidencia historica para la cronologia de Chavin, enfatizando la contribucion de los fechados radiocarbonicos calibrados y, de manera breve, revisando los que están temporalmente relacionados con otros sitios formativos. Se analizan, tambien, los numerosos fechados de carbono-14 asociados a ceramica y contextos arquitectonicos conocidos en Chavin derivados de estudios recientes. De hecho, muchos fechados de Chavin y sitios relacionados concuerdan en ubicar a la ceramica negra pulida estampada, denominada janabarroide, alrededor de 800-500 a.C. (calib.). La presencia de ocupaciones anteriores y posteriores, documentadas con fechados, ayudan a confirmar este rango temporal para materiales reconocidos del "Horizonte Temprano». En contraste con algunos otros importantes sitios formativos, Chavin deja de funcionar como templo hacia 500 a.C. (calib.), aunque los esfuerzos destinados a las construcciones principales ya estaban disminuyendo, de manera notable, antes de esta epoca.Chavin de Huantar is one of the key sites of the Formative Period in the Central Andes, with many decades of investigations by dozens of investigators, but ironically its chronology is still poorly defined and contested. This article reviews the historical evidence for Chavin chronology, emphasizing an examination of calibrated radiocarbon dates, and summarily reviewing related radiocarbon evidence from approximately contemporary sites. The more voluminous C14 evidence from recent work at Chavin is then examined, particularly focused on dates from known ceramic and architectural contexts. A large number of determinations concur, both in and outside of Chavin, in dating stamped polished blackware "janabarroid" ceramics in the range of 800-500 BC in calibrated age. Earlier and later occupations at Chavin are documented, helping confirm this time range for «Early Horizon» materials. Chavin, unlike some other important Formative sites, loses its temple function by around 500 BC calibrated, although major construction seems to have greatly decreased well before that time.

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Available from: Christian Mesia, Sep 26, 2014
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    • "In coastal Nepeña, recent research has questioned traditional connections with the Chavín phenomenon and the adjacent highlands (Chicoine 2006, 2010b; Shibata 2010, 2011); especially considering the reevaluation of the occupational history and chronology at Chavín de Huántar (Burger and Salazar-Burger 2008; Rick et al. 2011). While Chavín-related and Cupisnique stylistic features are evident at the late Initial Period ceremonial centres of Cerro Blanco and Huaca Partida, by the time of the emergence of urban communities at Caylán and associated settlements, coastal populations appear to have steered clear of Chavín imagery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chavín de Huántar has long been recognized as a site of pan-regional importance in the first millennium bce Central Andes. Multiple lines of evidence link the site to costa, sierra and selva. Using exotic goods for which provenance is known – for example, obsidian, cinnabar, selected ceramics and marine shell – specific areas with which Chavín interacted can be identified. These interactions are considered in the context of distinct ways of thinking about Central Andean space – a least-cost transportation surface, the Inca road network and ethno-historically reconstructed territories. I argue that explicitly modeling the implications of connecting such nodes and considering distance in multiple ways facilitates a better characterization of interregional interaction.
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