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Instrumento de evaluación sobre higiene postural: opinión del profesor de Educación Física

Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte 10.40 (2010): 630-651 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Role of physical education teachers with regard to spinal misalignments Resumen El profesor de educación física debe conocer el concepto, gravedad y evolución de las desalinea-ciones más frecuentes de la columna vertebral, lo que permitirá una adecuada interpretación de los informes médicos. Con frecuencia muchos alumnos presentan de-salineaciones y restricciones de extensibilidad muscular, que desconocen que las presentan por-que la gran mayoría no han sido diagnosticadas durante el crecimiento. disposición del raquis. Hay que aprove-char las clases para educar sobre las diferentes posturas estáticas y dinámicas de la columna. Siempre es más beneficioso que estos alumnos realicen ejercicio físico a que se desarrollen sin la adecuada actividad física. Selección, 2004; 13 (1):5-17 Palabras clave: Educación Física. Escoliosis. Cifo-sis. Actitud cifótica lumbar. Cortedad isquiosural. Se-dentación. Summary Physical education teachers should know the concept, seriousness and evolution of the most fre-quent spinal misalignments so that they can inter-pret medical reports appropriately. Many students often have misalignments and muscle extensibility restrictions, which they are not aware of because the vast majority have not been diagnosed during growth. Physical education teachers are not usually aware of the most recommended exercises and physical activities for the most frequent misalign-ments, such as dorsal hyperkyphosis, lumbar kyp-hotic deformities or functional kyphosis. As a result of the high prevalence of spinal mi-salignments in the sagittal plañe and the fact that this occurrence is on the increase, physical educa-tion teachers should include flexibility exercises of the thoracic spine, strengthening of the extensors of the spinal column, as well as stretching of the hamstring muscles with a correct spine position in their classes. Classes should be used to teach peo-pie about the different static and dynamic postures ofthe spine. It is always more beneficial for these students to do physical exercise than to develop without suita-ble physical activity.
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    ABSTRACT: A control group-designed 1-year follow-up study involving 9 to 11-year-old schoolchildren who followed back education. To evaluate the efficacy of a back education program, consisting of six sessions of 1 hour each, in elementary school. In surveys among children and teenagers during the past few years, as many as half of all children in a community report a history of low back pain. Although several authors advocate the implementation of back education in elementary school, no guidelines exist and little is known about the efficacy of such a program. A total of 198 children (subjected to back education) and 165 controls performed a practical test, evaluating the use of back care principles while sitting, taking off shoes, picking up a pen, and handling a load and a book bag. Post-tests were performed within 1 week after the intervention, after 3 months, and after 1 year. The week prevalence of back and neck pain was evaluated at these test moments in extended samples of intervention children (n = 347) and controls (n = 349). To evaluate habit changes, a limited group of intervention pupils (n = 38) and controls (n = 31) was additionally evaluated in a candid camera observation at the last post-test. At all post-tests intervention pupils scored significantly higher (P < 0.001) than controls for all practical test items. Candid camera evaluation scores were higher in the intervention group sample compared with the control group sample for four of the eight evaluated items. Following back education significantly decreased the week prevalence of back and neck pain. Back education in elementary schoolchildren is efficacious up to 1 year. The role of early back education in preventing back pain at the adult age merits further attention.
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