Parturition In Domestic Animals: A Review

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Parturition is the process of delivery of the fully grown fetus on the completion of the normal pregnancy period. Parturition is an interesting biological process in the sense that the uterus that was quiescent during the entire pregnancy starts contracting and the cervix that was tightly contracted relax sufficiently to allow the passage of the young one to the world outside the mothers womb, passing through the birth canal (which is formed by the uterus, cervix and vagina within the pelvic bones and their attachments). Parturition is one of the most important events for the farmers as by this act of his animal he would derive gain in terms of milk or sale of animal and its progeny. Most domestic animals are prone to maximum injuries and infections, some of them endangering the life of the fetus and the dam immediately, and some of them affecting the future productive and reproductive life of the mother. Therefore, due care must be exercised in advance and sufficient vigilance must be kept during parturition to minimize parturient problems. It is desirable and often safe to shift animals about to parturate to separate, quiet, clean area with sufficient protection from inclement weather. Cows, buffaloes and mares are often shifted to calving pens/foaling pens. Sheep and goat often parturate at pasture but at organized farms they may be shifted to kidding pens, separate from other animals that may disturb them. A close watch on the parturating animals is essential to provide assistance as early as possible when required. Mares can often inhibit or prolong parturition voluntarily in the presence of persons and daylight and they mostly foal during the night hours (Haluska and Wilkins, 1989, Purohit et al., 1999). Therefore, mares must be visualized from distance. Modern stud farms have closed circuit TV cameras fitted in the foaling boxes for this purpose. Farrowing crates are highly desirable for sows with constant watch being kept on farrowing sows to prevent them from lying on newborn piglets. For bitches, whelping boxes of cardboard with newspapers are often good. The bitch should be familiar with this environment 15-20 days ahead of whelping. Queens often require a quiet environment and they thus seek solitude.

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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTA total of four pregnancies were terminated in three bitches (two beagles and one flatcoated retriever) with a single dose of 20 mg/kg (one case), two doses of 8-3 mg/kg (one case) or 20 mg/kg plus 40 mg/kg (two cases) RU 486 by mouth (Mifepristone; Roussel-Uclaf, France) from day 26 to day 36 after the first day of mating of the bitch. Abortions occurred within two, four, 11 and 11 days after the initial treatment, respectively. The clinical status of the bitches was similar to that observed during a normal parturition, ie, lowering of the body temperature, shivering, panting and nesting behaviour. No side effects were seen. The beagle bitch that aborted twice, was mated at the first oestrus after the first abortion, conceived and aborted the same number of puppies the second time. The peripheral plasma progesterone concentration at the time of treatment in all bitches was < 75 nmol/litre. It had decreased to between 24-2 and 13-1 nmol/litre at the time of abortion and to between 4-0 to 0–5 nmol/litre at four to 15 days after the initial treatment. Peripheral plasma levels of prolactin increased three- to fourfold within 24 to 48 hours after treatment, concomitant with the drop in progesterone and had returned to basal levels within two to three days. Prolactin concentrations also increased around the time of intrauterine fetal death. Prostaglandin F2a-metabolite concentrations increased slowly after treatment, and around the time of abortion the levels increased five- to 10-fold. RU 486 seems to be a safe and effective abortifacient for use during mid-term pregnancy in the dog.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 04/2008; 33(7):331 - 336. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peri-parturient behaviors and time budget of parturition sequences were observed in 106 does maintained under confined but undisturbed conditions. Incidence of isolation and intolerance to conspecifics were observed in 80% of does 4–6 h before kidding, whereas intense restlessness occurred in 79% does 1–4 h pre-kidding. Both the primiparous and multiparous does behaved almost in the same way except the manifestation of restlessness which was more intense among primiparous does. Delivery in does while sitting was more frequent than that in standing posture (71% vs. 29%). More than 90% of kids were born head first and with one foreleg preceding the other by 1–3 cm while passing through the birth canal. Parturition duration (from appearance of water bag to complete expulsion of fetus) in first and second kid birth was 20 min and 6 min, respectively. Time gap between first and second birth was 6 min. Does needed 149 min post-birth for complete expulsion of placenta. Time budget of parturition sequences did not vary significantly between primiparous and multiparous does. Hourly frequencies of birth showed that 80% of kidding happened between 06:00–18:00h with a major peak around 16:00h.
    Small Ruminant Research 01/1997; 26(1):157-161. · 1.12 Impact Factor


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