El método de las necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) y sus aplicaciones en América Latina

Source: RePEc


En América Latina, el método de las Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas (NBI)ha significado un importante aporte para la identificación de ciertas carencias críticas de la población y la caracterización de la pobreza. En la presente nota se hace una revisión de las principales características de dicho método, tanto en su forma más generalizada de aplicación como en las variantes propuestas en años recientes. Adicionalmente, se incluye un resumen de los indicadores utilizados en algunos mapas de pobreza construidos en un gran número de países de la región. Con base en la síntesis de las ventajas y desventajas del método NBI contenidas en el documento, las conclusiones del mismo apuntan a destacar especialmente su utilidad en cuanto instrumento de caracterización de la población en términos de la insatisfacción de determinadas necesidades básicas, más que como una metodología de medición de la pobreza propiamente tal.

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Available from: Xavier Mancero, Dec 29, 2014
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    • "In addition to proposing a model to identify the poor and aggregate their characteristics, they specify several functional forms to account for different relationships of complementarity or substitution between the dimensions or indicators. Their model differs from previous aggregated multiple-dimension indicators like the 5 The UBN approach used census data to evaluate the level of deprivation on: (i) housing (construction materials and overcrowding), (ii) access water and sanitation; (iii) school attendance and years of education of the household head; and (iv) rate of demographic dependency (Feres and Mancero 2001). This methodology utilized a union approach to determine poverty, meaning that if a person or household was deprived in one of the indicators, it was identified as poor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared to the number of poor people estimated using the national income poverty line, however, large variance is found at the regional level, some regions present higher levels of multidimensional poverty than income poverty. Nonetheless, multidimensional poverty at the regional level appears to be varied, both in terms of prevalence and its nature. The multidimensional nature of this methodology provides a deeper understanding of poverty and deprivation, thus it complements income poverty estimates by informing policymakers about the joint distribution of several deprivations. This information can be used to better design and target poverty alleviation programs, as well as better allocate resources at the regional and local level.
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    • "The UBN index is often used as an indicator for poverty level in Latin America. It is constructed by combining census level household measures including adequate housing conditions, access to water and sanitation, and availability of electricity into a composite indicator representing poverty for small administrative units [44]. A large body of literature exists on the strengths and weaknesses of the UBN as an indicator for levels of poverty (see [44,45]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The presence and influence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the landscape of global health and development have dramatically increased over the past several decades. The distribution of NGO activity and the ways in which contextual factors influence the distribution of NGO activity across geographies merit study. This paper explores the distribution of NGO activity, using Bolivia as a case study, and identifies local factors that are related to the distribution of NGO activity across municipalities in Bolivia. Methods The research question is addressed using a geographic information system (GIS) and multiple regression analyses of count data. We used count data of the total number of NGO projects across Bolivian municipalities to measure NGO activity both in general and in the health sector specifically and national census data for explanatory variables of interest. Results This study provides one of the first empirical analyses exploring factors related to the distribution of NGO activity at the national scale. Our analyses show that NGO activity in Bolivia, both in general and health-sector specific, is distributed unevenly across the country. Results indicate that NGO activity is related to population size, extent of urbanization, size of the indigenous population, and health system coverage. Results for NGO activity in general and health-sector specific NGO activity were similar. Conclusions The uneven distribution of NGO activity may suggest a lack of co-ordination among NGOs working in Bolivia as well as a lack of co-ordination among NGO funders. Co-ordination of NGO activity is most needed in regions characterized by high NGO activity in order to avoid duplication of services and programmes and inefficient use of limited resources. Our findings also indicate that neither general nor health specific NGO activity is related to population need, when defined as population health status or education level or poverty levels. Considering these results we discuss broader implications for global health and development and make several recommendations relevant for development and health practice and research.
    Globalization and Health 11/2012; 8(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1744-8603-8-38 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The Alkire-Foster (AF) method (2007, 2011) combines the intuitive 'counting' approach that has a long history of empirical implementation in multidimensional poverty (Erikson, 1993; Feres and Mancero, 2001; Gordon et al., 2003; Mack, 1985) with the literature on axiomatic approaches to multidimensional poverty in welfare economics (e.g. Bourguignon and Chakravarty, 2003; Tsui, 2002; Chakravarty et al., 1998; Alkire, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new approach to child poverty measurement that reflects the breadth and components of child poverty. The Alkire and Foster method presented in this paper seeks to answer the question ‘who is poor’ by considering the intensity of each child’s poverty. Once children are identified as poor, the measures aggregate information on poor children’s deprivations in a way that can be broken down to see where and how children are poor. The resulting measures go beyond the headcount by taking into account the breadth, depth or severity of dimensions of child poverty. The paper illustrates one way to apply this method to child poverty measurement, using Bangladeshi data from four rounds of the Demographic Health Survey covering the period 1997–2007. Results for Bangladesh show that the AF adjusted headcount ratio adds value because it produces a different ranking than the simple headcount, because it also reflects the simultaneous deprivations children experience (intensity). Given this, we argue that child poverty should not be assessed only according to the incidence of poverty but also by the intensity of deprivations that batter poor children’s lives at the same time. The Bangladesh example is used to illustrate how to compute and interpret the child poverty figures, how the final measure can be broken down by groups and by dimensions in order to analyse child poverty, how to interpret changes over time, and how to undertake robustness checks concerning the poverty cut-off.
    SSRN Electronic Journal 07/2011; DOI:10.2139/ssrn.2118547
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