El método de las necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) y sus aplicaciones en América Latina

Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT En América Latina, el método de las Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas (NBI)ha significado un importante aporte para la identificación de ciertas carencias críticas de la población y la caracterización de la pobreza. En la presente nota se hace una revisión de las principales características de dicho método, tanto en su forma más generalizada de aplicación como en las variantes propuestas en años recientes. Adicionalmente, se incluye un resumen de los indicadores utilizados en algunos mapas de pobreza construidos en un gran número de países de la región. Con base en la síntesis de las ventajas y desventajas del método NBI contenidas en el documento, las conclusiones del mismo apuntan a destacar especialmente su utilidad en cuanto instrumento de caracterización de la población en términos de la insatisfacción de determinadas necesidades básicas, más que como una metodología de medición de la pobreza propiamente tal.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), a measure of acute poverty, understood as a person’s inability to meet simultaneously minimum international standards in indicators related to the Millennium Development Goals and to core functionings. It constitutes the first implementation of the direct method to measure poverty for over 100 developing countries. After presenting the MPI, we analyse its scope and robustness, with a focus on the data challenges and methodological issues involved in constructing and estimating it. A range of robustness tests indicate that the MPI offers a reliable framework that can complement global income poverty estimates.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colombian Andean forests cover nine million ha. These forests provide an informative case study of mountain deforestation in South America. They are surrounded by tropical lowland forests, and they host most of the country’s human population. This study evaluates the relative importance of human and natural variables in deforestation of the Colombian Andes between 1985 and 2005 using remote sensing methods, geographic information system (GIS) technology and general linear models (GLM). The following factors affected the annual deforestation in the region positively: forced population migration, unsatisfied basic needs, economic activity, crops, pastures, illicit crops, protected areas and slope. Factors having a negative effect were tenure of small land parcels, road density, water scarcity and mean temperature. The results of this study also provide insight into the differences between the dynamics of lowland forests and those of montane forests. Montane forests had a lower annual rate of deforestation than did forests in the lowlands. Socio-economic, demographic and biophysical factors explain overall deforestation rates for the region. However, when altitude variation is taken into account, intraregional differences in the Andes become evident. Deforestation processes differ between those areas adjacent to the high Andean valleys where most of the country’s population concentrates and those areas in the tropical lowlands north, west and east of the Andean chain. Differences between lowland and montane forest dynamics are due partly to the accessibility of forests and differences in wealth and economic activities. In montane forests, deforestation is positively influenced by economic activity, the presence of protected areas and higher slopes. Deforestation in montane forests is negatively affected by tenure of small land parcels, road density, water scarcity and mean temperature. Lowland deforestation rates are more closely related to rural population, pasture percentage, crops, protected areas and temperature. Our results suggest that montane forests appear to be in a more advanced stage of colonisation and economic development, whereas lowland forests are closer to the colonisation frontier and to rapidly growing colonist populations. This study reinforces the idea that although the most common tropical drivers of deforestation are found in the Andes, these drivers operate differently when intraregional differences are considered. KeywordsDeforestation–Andes–GLM–Montane forests–Lowland forests–Driving factors–Colombia
    Regional Environmental Change 11(3):693-705. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To evaluate maternal and child care practices in areas with extreme poverty in Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study conducted between August and September 2012; with probabilistic, three-stage stratification by “department” (geographic region) sampling. 540 households were selected that had at least one child younger than 36 months (475 households) and/or a pregnant women (80 households), in rural areas of Cajamarca, Amazonas, Huanuco, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Apurimac, Cusco, Puno and Ucayali. Results. Regarding the last pregnancy, 69.0% of the mothers reported having had their first prenatal care in the first trimester; 65.3% reported having completed more than six check-ups throughout the pregnancy; 81.1% reported having given birth in a health facility, and only 31.0% chose a method of family planning within 42 days postpartum. With regard to the last child under 3 years old, 64.1% had early mother-infant contact, and 62.8% initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth. In addition, 89.6% of children under 6 months old exclusively received breastfeeding and 89.1% of children aged 6-8 months old already had received complementary feeding. Fever, diarrhea, vomiting and breathing difficulty were the most mentioned warning signs for seeking care for children. Conclusions. Through this study, a baseline has been established on which a strategy can be designed and implemented to improve best practices for maternal and child care as part of the “Programa de Apoyo” within the Health Sector Reform.
    Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica 06/2014; 31(2):243-53.


Available from