• [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Here we define activities of RIM-binding protein (RBP) that are essential for baseline neurotransmission and presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. At baseline, rbp mutants have a ∼10-fold decrease in the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity of release that we attribute to (1) impaired presynaptic Ca(2+) influx, (2) looser coupling of vesicles to Ca(2+) influx, and (3) limited access to the readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP). During homeostatic plasticity, RBP is necessary for the potentiation of Ca(2+) influx and the expansion of the RRP. Remarkably, rbp mutants also reveal a rate-limiting stage required for the replenishment of high release probability (p) vesicles following vesicle depletion. This rate slows ∼4-fold at baseline and nearly 7-fold during homeostatic signaling in rbp. These effects are independent of altered Ca(2+) influx and RRP size. We propose that RBP stabilizes synaptic efficacy and homeostatic plasticity through coordinated control of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx and the dynamics of a high-p vesicle pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.01.024 · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability of synapses to sustain neurotransmitter release during continuous activity critically relies on an efficient vesicle recycling program. Despite extensive research on synaptic function, the basic mechanisms of vesicle recycling remain poorly understood due to the relative inaccessibility of central synapses to conventional recording techniques. The extremely small size of synaptic vesicles, nearly five times below the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy, has hampered efforts to define the mechanisms controlling their cycling. The complex sequence of dynamic processes that occur within the nerve terminals and link vesicle endocytosis and the subsequent round of release has been particularly difficult to study. The recent development of nanoscale-resolution imaging techniques has provided an opportunity to overcome these limitations and begin to reveal the mechanisms controlling vesicle recycling within individual nerve terminals. Here we summarize the recent advances in the implementation of super-resolution imaging and single-particle tracking approaches to study the dynamic steps of the vesicle recycling process within presynaptic terminals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Synapse 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/syn.21795 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ) a variety of specialized proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Calcium channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modeling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometer scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organization of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how SRM can be used to obtain information on the organization of AZ proteins.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:7. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00007 · 4.18 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
57 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014