Increased SIAH expression predicts ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) progression to invasive carcinoma

Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University and Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.94). 11/2010; 129(3):717-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-010-1254-8
Source: PubMed


Hyperactivated HER2/Neu/EGFR/RAS signaling is a major growth-promoting pathway known to drive cellular transformation and oncogenesis in breast cancers. HER2 amplification is detected in ~20% of all human breast cancer and is quite prevalent (up to 49%) in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH is considered a key downstream "gatekeeper" required for proper HER2/EGFR/RAS signal transduction. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded resection specimens from 65 patients with DCIS treated with wide excision only were stained with an anti-SIAH antibody, and the percentage of tumor and normal adjacent tissue cells positive for SIAH nuclear staining were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed comparing SIAH staining in tumor cells to disease recurrence, histologic type, necrosis, hormone receptor status, and Her2/neu status, as well as nuclear grade. Correlation of SIAH expression in tumor cells with SIAH expression in normal adjacent tissue and age was also examined. Expression levels of SIAH in tumor cells was significantly higher in specimens from patients with recurrence (median = 19%) as compared to patients without recurrence (7%) (P < 0.001). There was also significantly increased SIAH expression in tumors with more aggressive features including comedo morphology (13.5% in comedo vs. 7% in other histologic types, P = 0.014). No significant association was observed between SIAH expression and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Her2/neu status. There was a significant correlation between SIAH expression in tumors and normal adjacent tissue (Spearman correlation = 0.58, P < 0.001) as well as between SIAH expression in normal adjacent tissue and patient age (Spearman correlation = -0.59, P < 0.001). No significant correlation was identified between patient age and SIAH expression in tumors (Spearman correlation = -0.23, P = 0.067). In conclusion, SIAH may represent a useful prognostic biomarker that predicts DCIS progression to invasive breast cancer.

Download full-text


Available from: Amy Tang, May 08, 2015
10 Reads
  • Source
    • "It has been reported that Siah2 is more efficient than Siah1 in inducing the degradation of PHD3 [27]. However, no direct interaction of Siah1 with PHD3 has been reported so far. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Siah1 and Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligases play an important role in diverse signaling pathways and have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The human Siah1 and Siah2 isoforms share high sequence similarity but possess contrary roles in cancer, with Siah1 more often acting as a tumor suppressor while Siah2 functions as a proto-oncogene. The different function of Siah1 and Siah2 in cancer is likely due to the ubiquitination of distinct substrates. Hence, we decided to investigate the molecular basis of the substrate specificity, utilizing the well-characterized Siah2 substrate PHD3. Using chimeric and mutational approaches, we identified critical residues in Siah2 that promote substrate specificity. Thus, we have found that four residues in the N-terminal region of the Siah2 substrate binding domain (SBD) (Ser132, His150, Pro155, Tyr163) are critical for substrate specificity. In the C-terminal region of the SBD, a single residue, Leu250, was identified to promote the specific binding of Siah2 SBD to PHD3. Our study may help to overcome the challenges in the identification of Siah2 specific inhibitors.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106547. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106547 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is currently inadequate. The aim of this comprehensive review was to identify important molecular biological markers associated with DCIS and candidate markers associated with increased risk of ipsilateral recurrence after diagnosis of DCIS. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to identify studies published in the past 10 years that investigated biological markers in DCIS. To be included in this review, studies that investigated the rate of biological expression of markers had to report on at least 30 patients; studies that analyzed the recurrence risk associated with biomarker expression had to report on at least 50 patients. There were 6,252 patients altogether in our review. Biological markers evaluated included steroid receptors, proliferation markers, cell cycle regulation and apoptotic markers, angiogenesis-related proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor family receptors, extracellular matrix-related proteins, and COX-2. Although the studies in this review provide valuable preliminary information regarding the expression and prognostic significance of biomarkers in DCIS, common limitations of published studies (case-series, cohort, and case-control studies) were that they were limited to small patient cohorts in which the extent of surgery and use of radiotherapy or endocrine therapy varied from patient to patient, and variable methods of determining biomarker expression. These constraints made it difficult to interpret the absolute effect of expression of various biomarkers on risk of local recurrence. No prospective validation studies were identified. As the study of biomarkers are in their relative infancy in DCIS compared with invasive breast cancer, key significant prognostic and predictive markers associated with invasive breast cancer have not been adequately studied in DCIS. There is a critical need for prospective analyses of novel and other known breast cancer molecular markers in large cohorts of patient with DCIS to differentiate indolent from aggressive DCIS and better tailor the need and extent of current therapies.
    Journal of Cancer 05/2011; 2(1):232-61. DOI:10.7150/jca.2.232 · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an EBV-associated cancer. We analysed Siah1 expression as well as LMP1 and HIF1α expression by immuno-histochemical staining in 74 NPC biopsy specimens and found that the expression of Siah1 was significantly correlated with advanced tumour status and stage. Moreover, Siah1-positive and HIF1α-positive cases had significantly worse prognoses. The expression score for LMP1 was remarkably correlated with that of Siah1, whereas there was little correlation between LMP1 expression and the other markers evaluated. This is the first study to evaluate the pattern and clinical significance of Siah1 and HIF1α expression in NPC, and such an evaluation is valuable for identifying those patients at a high risk for a poor prognosis.
    Cancer letters 12/2012; 331(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.12.002 · 5.62 Impact Factor
Show more