Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage.

Department of Internal Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109, USA.
Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 32.25). 11/2010; 10(12):826-37. DOI: 10.1038/nri2873
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the past several decades, much has been revealed about the nature of the host innate immune response to microorganisms, with the identification of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are the conserved microbial motifs sensed by these receptors. It is now apparent that these same PRRs can also be activated by non-microbial signals, many of which are considered as damage-associated molecular patterns. The sterile inflammation that ensues either resolves the initial insult or leads to disease. Here, we review the triggers and receptor pathways that result in sterile inflammation and its impact on human health.

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    Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2014; · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    Andreas Habertheuer
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    ABSTRACT: The idea of protecting the heart from ischemic insult during heart surgery to allow elective cardiac arrest is as old as the idea of cardiac surgery itself. The current gold standard in clinical routine is a high potassium regimen added either to crystalloid or blood cardioplegic solutions inducing depolarized arrest. Ongoing patient demographic changes with increasingly older, comorbidly ill patients and increasing case complexity with increasingly structurally abnormal hearts as morphological correlate paired with evolutions in pediatric cardiac surgery allowing more complex procedures than ever before redefine requirements for cardioprotection. Many, in part adversarial, regimens to protect the myocardium from ischemic insults have entered clinical routine; however, functional recovery of the heart is still often impaired due to perfusion injury. Myocardial reperfusion damage is a key determinant of postoperative organ functional recovery, morbidity, and mortality in adult and pediatric patients. There is a discrepancy between what current protective strategies are capable of and what they are expected to do in a rapidly changing cardiac surgery community. An increased understanding of the molecular players of ischemia reperfusion injury offers potential seeds for new cardioprotective regimens and may further displace boundaries of what is technically feasible.
    BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014. · 2.71 Impact Factor


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