Article

Aspergillus fumigatus colonization in cystic fibrosis: implications for lung function?

Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 4.58). 11/2010; 17(9):1381-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03429.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus is commonly found in the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is associated with deterioration of lung function, the effects of A. fumigatus colonization on lung function in the absence of ABPA are not clear. This study was performed in 259 adults and children with CF, without ABPA. A. fumigatus colonization was defined as positivity of >50% of respiratory cultures in a given year. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to study clinical characteristics associated with A. fumigatus colonization. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to study the effect of A. fumigatus colonization on lung function observed between 2002 and 2007. Longitudinal data were analysed with a linear mixed model. Sixty-one of 259 patients were at least intermittently colonized with A. fumigatus. An association was found between A. fumigatus colonization and increased age and use of inhaled antibiotics. In the longitudinal analysis, 163 patients were grouped according to duration of colonization. After adjustment for confounders, there was no significant difference in lung function between patients colonized for 0 or 1 year and patients with 2-3 or more than 3 years of colonization (p 0.40 and p 0.64) throughout the study. There was no significant difference in lung function decline between groups. Although colonization with A. fumigatus is more commonly found in patients with more severe lung disease and increased treatment burden, it is not independently associated with lower lung function or more severe lung function decline over a 5-year period.

1 Bookmark
 · 
152 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited genetic condition amongst Caucasian ethnicities, affecting 1 in 2500 live births. There remains a significant unmet medical need for more and better therapies for this chronic, degenerative condition, in particular those that address the respiratory dysfunction and respiratory infections that characterise CF. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). The key pathology driver of CF is dysregulated ion transport across the epithelial cell barriers that line the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and other organ systems. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art advances and future directions in therapeutic strategies to combat and manage the symptoms of CF and/or restore functionality of the defective CFTR.
    Future medicinal chemistry 06/2014; 6(9):1067-79. · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cultures from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is quite common; however, the role of A. fumigatus as a pathogen and whether its presence is associated with progression of pulmonary disease remain unclear. We investigated the association between inhaled corticosteroids and the recovery of A. fumigatus by performing a retrospective cohort study of CF patients born between 1988 and 1996. The patients' medical records from their first visit to the CF Center until December 2010 were reviewed. Outcomes were the occurrence of A. fumigatus first isolation, chronic colonization, or the last visit at the CF Center. A number of possible confounders were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify an independent association between inhaled corticosteroids and colonization status. A total of 121 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (32.2%) had at least one positive culture and 14 (11.6%) developed chronic colonization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the odds of first isolation (odds ratio [OR], 1.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015-1.337; P = 0.029) and chronic colonization (OR, 1.180; 95% CI, 1.029-1.353; P = 0.018). In conclusion, A. fumigatus first isolation and chronic colonization are associated with the duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment.
    Medical mycology. 07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with structural lung disease or defective immunity are predisposed to Aspergillus-associated disease. Manifestations range from allergic to cavitary or angio-invasive syndromes. Despite daily spore inhalation, immunocompetence facilitates clearance through initiation of innate and adaptive host responses. These include mechanical barriers, phagocyte activation, antimicrobial peptide release and pattern recognition receptor activation. Adaptive responses include Th1 and Th2 approaches. Understanding Aspergillus virulence mechanisms remains critical to the development of effective research and treatment strategies to counteract the fungi. Major virulence factors relate to fungal structure, protease release and allergens; however, mechanisms utilized to evade immune recognition continue to be important in establishing infection. These include the fungal rodlet layer, dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, detoxifying systems for reactive oxygen species and toxin release. One major immunoevasive toxin, gliotoxin, plays a key role in mediating Aspergillus-associated colonization in the context of cystic fibrosis. Here, it down-regulates vitamin D receptor expression which following itraconazole therapy is rescued concurrent with decreased Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) concentrations in the CF airway. This review focuses on the interaction between Aspergillus pathogenic mechanisms, host immune responses and the immunoevasive strategies employed by the organism during disease states such as that observed in cystic fibrosis.
    Mycopathologia 06/2014; · 1.49 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
185 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014