Lack of high-level resistance mutations in HIV type 1 BF recombinant strains circulating in northeast Brazil.
ABSTRACT Abstract The genetic variability and the prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAM) of HIV-1 isolates from 50 women and 8 children from Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil were investigated. DNA samples were obtained and pol sequences were generated by PCR and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 39 (67.2%) samples were subtype B, four (6.9%) F, one (1.7%) C, and 14 (24.1%) BF recombinants. Four different BF recombination patterns were detected. Twelve (20.7%) samples shared the same breakpoint within the reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence. Fifty-five (94.8%) isolates showed several resistance-associated mutations in the RT and the protease (PR) genes. Ten (17.2%) isolates presented mutations associated with a high level of resistance: nine (15.5%) to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTI), four (6.9%) to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI), and three (5.2%) to PR inhibitors (PIs). Subtype B-infected patients had, on average, 0.5 high-level DRAM per sequence while no mutations were observed in BF recombinants, although the two groups were under ARV for a similar period of time. Our data indicate the predominance of the subtype B, followed by BF recombinants in this population, and the dissemination of a recombinant strain in Bahia, which could be related to adaptive advantages of these variants over the predominant subtype B.