The association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant mortality among U.S. infants born in 2002.

Department of Family Science, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 11/2010; 16(1):119-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-010-0713-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain can complicate a woman’s pregnancy and put her and her child at risk for poor delivery and birth outcomes. Further, feeding and activity habits established early in life can significantly impact the development of childhood obesity. The on-going Delta Healthy Sprouts Project is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting programs on weight status and health behaviors of 150 mothers and their infants residing in the rural Mississippi Delta region of the United States. Women are enrolled in their second trimester of pregnancy and randomized to one of two treatment arms. The control arm curriculum is based on Parents as Teachers, an evidence based approach to increase parental knowledge of child development and improve parenting practices. The experimental arm, labeled Parents as Teachers Enhanced, builds upon the control curriculum by including culturally tailored nutrition and physical activity components specifically designed for the gestational and postnatal periods. We hypothesize that, as compared to the control arm, the experimental arm will be more effective in preventing inappropriate gestational weight gain, reducing postnatal weight retention, and decreasing infant obesity rates. We also will evaluate mother and child dietary and physical activity outcomes, breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and child feeding practices. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project tests a novel, combined approach to maternal weight management and childhood obesity prevention in pregnant women and their children at high risk for obesity and chronic disease.
    Contemporary clinical trials 05/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sufficient amino acid transport activity (AAT) is indispensable for appropriate fetal growth. Studies suggest that placental nutrient uptake activity is responsive to both maternal and fetal nutrient demands. We hypothesize that under conditions of limited nutrient availability to the fetus, as often present in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and insufficient weight-gain during pregnancy, a general adaptive response aimed to increase amino acid transport activity may be observed in the placenta.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2014; 14(1):181. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain and prenatal cessation may lead to increased gestational weight gain (GWG). Although previous reports have suggested a link between prenatal smoking cessation and GWG, no studies have examined the relationship between cessation and guideline-recommended GWG, and there is little information about the relationship between the timing of prenatal cessation and GWG. Thus, we examine GWG among women in a community prenatal smoking cessation program and assess the relationship between the timing of prenatal cessation GWG. Pregnant women from care clinics serving economically disadvantaged women who participated in a smoking cessation intervention offered free of charge, self-reported weight, and provided biochemical verification of smoking. Relationships between duration of cessation and GWG were evaluated in t-tests and regression models. GWG was calculated from self-reported weight before pregnancy and self-reported weight at the last visit before delivery. Women who quit earlier during pregnancy had greater GWG (16.9 ± 7.5 kg) than did those who never quit (13.6 ± 8.9). After adjusting for timing of weight assessment and prepregnancy body mass index, however, GWG was not different between women who did and did not quit. Quitting earlier in pregnancy is associated with greater GWG, but women who do and do not quit do not differ on total GWG. Despite increased GWG with early cessation, the maternal and fetal health benefits of prenatal smoking cessation outweigh risks of potential risks of excessive GWG.
    Women s Health Issues 11/2013; 23(6):e389-93. · 1.61 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014