Article

The Association Between Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Mortality Among US Infants Born in 2002

Department of Family Science, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Maternal and Child Health Journal (Impact Factor: 2.24). 11/2010; 16(1):119-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10995-010-0713-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

Full-text

Available from: Sandra L. Hofferth, May 16, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
138 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Sufficient amino acid transport activity (AAT) is indispensable for appropriate fetal growth. Studies suggest that placental nutrient uptake activity is responsive to both maternal and fetal nutrient demands. We hypothesize that under conditions of limited nutrient availability to the fetus, as often present in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and insufficient weight-gain during pregnancy, a general adaptive response aimed to increase amino acid transport activity may be observed in the placenta. Method A total of 40 placentas from full-term (n = 10) and pre-term (average gestational period = 34.8 weeks, n = 10) normal pregnancies, IUGR (n = 10), and preeclampsia (n = 10) associated pregnancies were looked at by immunohistochemistry followed by relative qualitative scoring to compare expression levels and localization of System L, ASCT2, and mTOR proteins. Result Microvillous syncytiotrophoblast (ST) in placenta of pregnancies complicated by IUGR or preeclampsia (PE) showed significant increases in the levels of System L amino acid transport proteins 4F2hc and LAT1 compared to both full-term control and pre-term (early gestation control) pregnancies seperately (p < 0.05). Elevated mTOR protein was uniquely higher in IUGR placentas compared to full-term controls (P = 0.0026). Total cellular ASCT2 transporter protein levels were similar in all groups, however, levels of ASCT2 protein localized to the ST microvillous membrane (MVM) were significantly lower in IUGR compared to both full-term and pre-term pregnancies (P = 0.0006, 0.03, respectively). Additionally, ASCT2 and mTOR protein levels were positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (P = 0.046, 0.048, respectively). Conclusion There are three important findings based upon the present study. First, in conditions of limited nutrient availability, such as PE or IUGR, there is an overall increase in the level of System L and mTOR protein expression in the ST, suggestive of an adaptive response. Second, a decrease in ASCT2 protein at the ST MVM suggests a post-translational event that may decrease AAT activity in IUGR placentas. Third, a physiological link between transporter expression and pre-pregnancy BMI is suggested based upon a positive association observed with ASCT2 and mTOR expression values.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2014; 14(1):181. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-181 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain can complicate a woman’s pregnancy and put her and her child at risk for poor delivery and birth outcomes. Further, feeding and activity habits established early in life can significantly impact the development of childhood obesity. The on-going Delta Healthy Sprouts Project is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting programs on weight status and health behaviors of 150 mothers and their infants residing in the rural Mississippi Delta region of the United States. Women are enrolled in their second trimester of pregnancy and randomized to one of two treatment arms. The control arm curriculum is based on Parents as Teachers, an evidence based approach to increase parental knowledge of child development and improve parenting practices. The experimental arm, labeled Parents as Teachers Enhanced, builds upon the control curriculum by including culturally tailored nutrition and physical activity components specifically designed for the gestational and postnatal periods. We hypothesize that, as compared to the control arm, the experimental arm will be more effective in preventing inappropriate gestational weight gain, reducing postnatal weight retention, and decreasing infant obesity rates. We also will evaluate mother and child dietary and physical activity outcomes, breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and child feeding practices. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project tests a novel, combined approach to maternal weight management and childhood obesity prevention in pregnant women and their children at high risk for obesity and chronic disease.
    Contemporary clinical trials 05/2014; 38(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.03.004 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conventional measures of gestational weight gain (GWG) are correlated with pregnancy duration, and may induce bias to studies of GWG and perinatal outcomes. A maternal weight-gain-for-gestational-age z-score chart is a new tool that allows total GWG to be classified as a standardised z-score that is independent of gestational duration. Our objective was to compare associations with perinatal outcomes when GWG was assessed using gestational age-standardised z-scores and conventional GWG measures. We studied normal-weight (n = 522 120) and overweight (n = 237 923) women who delivered liveborn, singleton infants in Pennsylvania, 2003-11. GWG was expressed using gestational age-standardised z-scores and three traditional measures: total GWG (kg), rate of GWG (kg per week of gestation), and the GWG adequacy ratio (observed GWG/GWG recommended by the Institute of Medicine). Log-binomial regression models were used to assess associations between GWG and preterm birth, and small- and large-for-gestational-age births, while adjusting for race/ethnicity, education, smoking, and other confounders. The association between GWG z-score and preterm birth was approximately U-shaped. The risk of preterm birth associated with weight gain <10th percentile of each measure was substantially overestimated when GWG was classified using total kilogram and was moderately overestimated using rate of GWG or GWG adequacy ratio. All GWG measures had similar associations with small- or large-for-gestational-age birth. Our findings suggest that studies of gestational age-dependent outcomes misspecify associations if total GWG, rate of GWG, or GWG adequacy ratio are used. The potential for gestational age-related bias can be eliminated by using z-score charts to classify total GWG. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 12/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1111/ppe.12168 · 2.81 Impact Factor