Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known to be associated with Type 2 cryoglobulinemic glomerulopathy (CG), only a few reports about other types of nephropathy have been published.
68 HCV antibody positive patients in whom renal biopsy had been performed for persistent proteinuria, hematuria, and/or renal dysfunction between 1992 and 2008 at our institute were included. The histological, clinical and laboratory characteristics including the age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, liver histology (chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis), HCV-RNA, HCV genotype, splenomegaly, gastroesophageal varices, serum creatinine, hemoglobin, platelet count, rheumatoid factor, cryoglobulin, IgG, IgA, IgM, CH50, C3, C4, creatinine clearance, 24-h protein excretion, and hematuria, between their nephropathy with and without immune deposition were compared.
Nephropathy was classified into two groups based on the detection of immune deposits by immunofluorescence microscopy: i.e., a positive group (n = 39) and a negative group (n = 29). The former group was further classified into three types of nephropathy: IgG dominant group (n = 10) (including membranous nephropathy (MN)), IgA dominant group (n = 20) (including IgA nephropathy (IgAN)), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (IgA type)), and IgM dominant group (n = 9) (MPGN apart from the IgA type). The latter group included diabetic nephropathy (n = 13), focal glomerular sclerosis (n = 4), and benign nephrosclerosis (n = 3), malignant nephrosclerosis (n = 1), tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) (n = 2), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (n = 1), cast nephropathy (n = 1), granulomatous TIN (n = 1), and others (n = 3). An increased serum IgM level, hypocomplementemia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, liver cirrhosis, hematuria, and a high HCV RNA level were features of patients with MPGN of IgM dominant group (consistent with "CG").
Our results showed various histological patterns of HCV-related kidney disease and the specificity of CG, and revealed that a minority of HCV patients (n = 7) presented typical CG, while IgAN, MN, and diabetic nephropathy were more frequent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in vitro at temperatures less than 37°C and produce organ damage through two main pathways: vascular sludging (hyperviscosity syndrome, mainly in type I cryoglobulinaemia) and immune-mediated mechanisms (principally vasculitis, in mixed cryoglobulinaemia). Cryoglobulinaemia is associated with many illnesses, which can be broadly grouped into infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies; the most common cause is infection with hepatitis C virus. Mixed cryoglobulinaemic syndrome is diagnosed when a patient has typical organ involvement (mainly skin, kidney, or peripheral nerve) and circulating cryoglobulins. Cutaneous purpura is the most common manifestation of cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. The most frequently affected internal organs are the peripheral nerves, kidneys, and joints. The course varies widely and prognosis is influenced by both cryoglobulinaemic damage to vital organs and by comorbidities associated with underlying diseases. More than 90% of cases of cryoglobulinaemia have a known underlying cause; therefore treatment is focused on the cause of the disorder rather than merely symptomatic relief. Studies suggest that both combined or sequential antiviral therapies and targeted biological treatments might be more effective than monotherapy.
The Lancet 08/2011; 379(9813):348-60. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60242-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimal change disease is the most common glomerular disease affecting children; its prevalence among adults, however, is eclipsed by other glomerular pathologies. Each of these diseases has a number of classic associations, such as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with hepatitis C. We report the case of a middle-aged African-American male who presented with the nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure and was concomitantly diagnosed with a new hepatitis C infection. He also had a history of urethral strictures with potential reflux nephropathy, which—in combination with his African-American race—also made focal segmental glomerulosclerosis a diagnostic possibility. Full laboratory evaluation did not distinguish the cause of his massive proteinuria; subsequent renal biopsy ultimately revealed minimal change disease. A full course of high-dose steroids eventually reduced his proteinuria, after which his renal failure resolved as well without need for hemodialysis.
International Urology and Nephrology 09/2012; 45(6). DOI:10.1007/s11255-012-0285-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: In liver cirrhosis renal function decreases as well. Hepatorenal syndrome is the most frequent cause of the decrease, but primary kidney failure, diabetes mellitus and some diseases underlying endstage liver failure (such as hepatitis C virus infection) can also play an important role. In liver transplantation several further factors (total cross-clamping of vena cava inferior, polytransfusion, immunosuppression) impair the renal function, too. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in kidney function during the first postoperative year after liver transplantation. Method: Retrospective data analysis was performed after primary liver transplantations (n = 319). Results: impaired preoperative renal function increased the devepolment of postoperative complications and the first year cumulative patient survival was significantly worse (91,7% vs 69,9%; p<0,001) in this group. If renal function of the patients increased above 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 after the first year, patient survival was better. Independently of the preoperative kidney function, 76% of the patients had impaired kidney function at the first postoperative year. In this group, de novo diabetes mellitus was more frequently diagnosed (22,5% vs 9,5%; p = 0,023). Conclusions: Selection of personalized immunosuppressive medication has a positive effect on renal function. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1018-1025.
Orvosi Hetilap 06/2013; 154(26):1018-1025. DOI:10.1556/OH.2013.29641
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