The relationship between H. pylori infection and anemia in childhood is still unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the association between H. pylori infection and anemia or iron deficiency in school-age children and in infants.
Six- to 9-year-old Israeli Arab children (N = 202) and infants (N = 197) were examined for hemoglobin and ferritin levels. ELISA was used to detect H. pylori antigens in stool specimens collected from the participants. Household characteristics were obtained through personal interviews with the mothers.
The prevalence of anemia was 15.5 versus 5.5% in H. pylori-positive and -negative school-age children, respectively and 34.5 versus 29.8% in H. pylori-positive and -negative infants, respectively. The Mantel-Haenszel age-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.6 (95%CI 1.0, 2.6). In multivariate analysis controlling for socioeconomic variables, H. pylori infection was associated with 2.8 higher prevalence of anemia only in school-age children: adjusted PR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9, 9.3). The adjusted mean difference in hemoglobin levels between H. pylori infected school-age children and uninfected ones was -0.372 gr/dL (95% CI -0.704, -0.039) (p = .04). The respective mean ferritin difference was -6.74 μg/L (95% CI -13.38, -.011) (p = .04). Such differences were not found in infants.
H. pylori infection is associated with higher prevalence of anemia in school-age children independently of socioeconomic variables. Such association was not observed in infants. These findings are of clinical and public health importance.
"Previous studies have shown an association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia . In the same cohort of children, we found a 2.8 higher risk for anemia and lower mean ferritin levels at age 6-9 years in H. pylori infected children compared with uninfected ones, after controlling for socioeconomic confounders . In a different study, H. pylori sero-positivity was associated with increased frequency of low ferritin levels in Arab children in Israel . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined in healthy children, independently of socioeconomic and nutritional factors.
A community-based study was conducted among 200 children aged 6-9 years, from different socioeconomic background. H. pylori infection was examined by an ELISA kit for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples. Cognitive function of the children was blindly assessed using Stanford-Benit test 5th edition, yielding IQ scores. Data on socioeconomic factors and nutritional covariates were collected through maternal interviews and from medical records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to obtain adjusted beta coefficients.
H. pylori infection was associated with lower IQ scores only in children from a relatively higher socioeconomic community; adjusted beta coefficient -6.1 (95% CI -11.4, -0.8) (P = 0.02) for full-scale IQ score, -6.0 (95% CI -11.1, -0.2) (P = 0.04) for non-verbal IQ score and -5.7 (95% CI -10.8, -0.6) (P = 0.02) for verbal IQ score, after controlling for potential confounders.
H. pylori infection might be negatively involved in cognitive development at early school age. Further studies in other populations with larger samples are needed to confirm this novel finding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral-oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral-fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer pre-screening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer-prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviewed the important publications on Helicobacter pylori research with children between April 2010 and March 2011. The most interesting studies in the last year lend further weight to the evidence for vertical transmission of H. pylori. The discovery of a potential role for jhp0562, the gene which encodes for the cell envelope protein glycosyltransferase, in the progression to peptic ulcer disease is also very interesting as it may provide a novel way to distinguish children at risk of peptic ulcer disease from those who are not, and so determine those who requires treatment to eradicate H. pylori. The rise in non-H. pylori-associated ulcers and erosions continues to be reported with no apparent risk factors for these ulcers identified to date. High levels of treatment failure continue to be reported, and there remains an urgent need for more effective treatment regimes for children.
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