Immunoregulation of GVHD by triggering the innate immune system with CpG.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by oligodeoxynucleotide sequences containing a CpG motif provides signals capable of triggering the innate and adaptive immune systems, thereby leading either to stimulation or suppression of immunoreactivities. Similar immunoregulatory capabilities are necessary for achieving the fine balance between engraftment and graft-versus-host disease required in the setup of allogeneic cell therapy. Ligation of CpG to its Toll-like receptors can be accomplished by treatment of the host or pretransplant treatment of the donor in vivo. These different strategies are presented in this review, which summarizes the attempts to maximize beneficial alloreactivity against malignant or other undesirable host cells, while controlling graft-versus-host disease.