Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the Event Related Rumination Inventory.
ABSTRACT Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.
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ABSTRACT: Need for cognition in contemporary literature refers to an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors. Individual differences in need for cognition have been the focus of investigation in over 100 empirical studies. This literature is reviewed, covering the theory and history of this variable, measures of interindividual variations in it, and empirical relationships between it and personality variables, as well as individuals' tendencies to seek and engage in effortful cognitive activity and enjoy cognitively effortful circumstances. The article concludes with discussions of an elaborated theory of the variable, including antecedent conditions; interindividual variations in it related to the manner information is acquired or processed to guide perceptions, judgments, and behavior; and the relationship between it and the 5-factor model of personality structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Psychological Bulletin 02/1996; 119(2):197-253. · 15.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the role of rumination in the aftermath of traumatic/stressful events, posttraumatic growth (PTG) and the four types of rumination (i.e., intrusive rumination soon after the event, intrusive rumination recently, deliberate rumination soon after the event, and deliberate rumination recently) were assessed retrospectively for participants from the USA (N=224) and Japan (N=431). The results from a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the hypothesized relationships among the four types of rumination and PTG were largely supported. Intrusive rumination soon after the event was positively related to PTG but recent deliberate rumination most strongly predicted the current levels of PTG for both samples. Some evidence for cultural differences in the role of rumination in PTG was also observed. In the US sample, deliberate rumination recently was more important than the deliberate rumination in the immediate aftermath of the traumatic/stressful event, whereas in the Japanese sample, deliberate rumination both soon after and recently were positively related to PTG. The results illustrate the importance of considering rumination as multidimensional and as varying across time in its impact on PTG. Future directions and clinical implications were discussed.Anxiety, stress, and coping 11/2008; 22(2):129-36. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Padua Inventory (PI) consists of 60 items describing common obsessional and compulsive behavior and allows investigation of the topography of such problems in normal and clinical Ss. It was administered to 967 normal Italian Ss, ranging in age from 16 to 70 yr. Inventory consistency and 1-month reliability were satisfactory. Females reported more complaints, more intensely than males. Ss aged from 16 to 20 yr and Ss aged from 46 to 70 complain of more obsessions and compulsions than Ss of intermediate ages. Four factors were identified: impaired control of mental activities, becoming contaminated, checking behaviors, urges and worries of losing control over motor behaviors. The PI correlates with the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Questionnaire (0.70), Leyton Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (0.71 with Symptom and 0.66 with Trait scales) and Self-rating Obsessional Scale (0.61). Furthermore, it allows discrimination between a group of 75 outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorders and a similar group of outpatients with other neurotic disorders. Relationships with fears and neuroticism traits were also found, reflected in moderately high correlations with the Fear Survey Schedule and the Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Behaviour Research and Therapy 02/1988; 26(2):169-77. · 3.30 Impact Factor