Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the Event Related Rumination Inventory

Department of Psychology and the Interdisciplinary Health Psychology Doctoral Program, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.
Anxiety, stress, and coping (Impact Factor: 1.55). 11/2010; 24(2):137-56. DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2010.529901
Source: PubMed


Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.

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Available from: Arnie Cann, Jul 27, 2014
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    • " se requires a long - term cognitive elaboration , therefore , rumination flows as a cognitive processing of a learned experience ( Experiment 1 ) but is amplified following emotional experiences of high intensity ( Experiment 2 ) . An important element to consider in evaluating the present results is that we assessed rumination through the ERRI ( Cann et al . , 2011 ) , an inventory specifically aimed at measuring two dimensions , corresponding to an intrusive dimension and a deliberate dimension . In Experiment 1 , the rates of intrusive rumination decreased over time for both Verbal and Visuospatial conditions . On the other hand , the rates of deliberate rumination were found to decrease only fo"
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper we aimed to show that competition for resources between post-emotional processes and the execution of a cognitive task will result in two possible effects: (1) an impairment of the cognitive task in the short run and (2) an elongation of intrusions and rumination in the long run. The outcome of this competition is influenced by the interaction of the modality (verbal vs. visuospatial) of cognitive tasks run in the aftermath of an emotional experience and the nature (verbal vs. visuospatial) of the same experience. Non-clinical participants were given a working memory task (OSPAN vs. an analog Visual task) before and after the presentation of negative vs. neutral material (a novel excerpt in Experiment 1 and a video clip in Experiment 2). Intrusions and rumination were measured after a 24-h delay. Rumination was also assessed immediately after the experimental induction. Results showed that exposure to verbal negative material impaired verbal performance (Experiment 1); by contrast, exposure to visual negative material impaired both verbal and visuospatial performance (Experiment 2). Intrusions were only affected by the emotional valence of the original experience, while performing a visuospatial task resulted in enhanced rumination only after exposure to verbal emotional material. The findings of both experiments suggest that emotional processing spreads over time in balance with ongoing cognitive activities, and, in such a balance, the visuospatial processing mode tends to prevail over verbal engagements.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01275 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • " need . Measures Event - related Rumination Inventory The modified Event - Related Rumination Inventory was used to measure intrusive and deliberate rumination ( Zhou et al . , 2014b ) . The items were rated on a 6 - point scale that ranged from 0 ( not at all ) to 5 ( always ) . The original Event - Related Rumination Inventory was developed by ( Cann et al . , 2011 ) and consists of 20 items . Some items from the original scale were reworded to form the modified ERRI , which has been testified to have a good reliability and validity in Chinese adolescent samples ( Zhou et al . , 2014a ) . The participants responded to each item two times , once based on their ruminations soon after the Wenchuan ea"
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    ABSTRACT: Three hundred and seventy-six middle school students in Wenchuan County were assessed three and one-half years after the Wenchuan earthquake to examine the effects of rumination on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). The results revealed that recent intrusive ruminations partly mediated the relationship between intrusive rumination soon after the earthquake with PTSD but not with PTG. Recent deliberate rumination partly mediated the relationship between intrusive rumination soon after the earthquake and PTG but not PTSD. Moreover, recent deliberate rumination also partly mediated the relationship between recent intrusive rumination with PTG but not with PTSD. Overall, intrusive rumination soon after the earthquake had an effect on PTSD but not on PTG through recent intrusive rumination and affected PTG but not PTSD through deliberate recent rumination. Furthermore, intrusive rumination soon after the earthquake affected PTG but not PTSD by recent deliberate rumination following recent intrusive rumination. More importantly, the present study also found that PTSD exhibited no relation to PTG. These results suggest that PTSD and PTG are influenced by different mechanisms, which further indicates that PTSD and PTG represent two separate dimensions of experience after adversity.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6:1335. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01335 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "1.3.2. Deliberate rumination The DR subscale of Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI) was used (Cann et al., 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test a cognitive model of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) after exposure to a natural disaster. It was hypothesized that although subjective severity of trauma would be related to the severity of PTS, this relation would be mediated by brooding and cognitive strategies related to the presence of repetitive negative content in thoughts. Furthermore, the relation between severity and PTG would be fully mediated by deliberate rumination (DR), cognitive strategies related to conscious efforts focused on handling the event. To evaluate the cognitive model, adults (N=351) who lost their homes as a result of the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Chile on February 27, 2010, were selected. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The resulting model had adequate indices of goodness adjustment and showed that brooding completely mediated the relation between subjective severity and PTS, and DR completely mediated the relation between subjective severity, brooding, and PTG. These results highlight the role of both the content and process of rumination in mediating the association between subjective severity of trauma, PTS, and PTG. The implications of these results for a more comprehensive model of symptom severity that occurs after trauma are discussed.
    European Journal of Psychotraumatology 07/2015; 6:26557. DOI:10.3402/ejpt.v6.26557 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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