Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the Event Related Rumination Inventory.
ABSTRACT Cognitive processes in the aftermath of experiencing a major life stressor play an important role in the impact of the event on the person. Intrusive thoughts about the event are likely to be associated with continued distress, while deliberate rumination, aimed at understanding and problem-solving, should be predictive of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI), designed to measure these two styles of rumination, is described and validation information is provided. Using a college student sample screened for having experienced highly stressful life events, data were obtained (N=323) to conduct an exploratory factor analysis that supported the two factors of the ERRI. Separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) on two additional samples (Ns=186 and 400) supported a two-factor model. The two ERRI factors were validated by comparison with related variables and by assessing their contributions to predicting distress and PTG in two samples (Ns=198 and 202) that had been combined to conduct the second CFA. Data indicate the ERRI has solid psychometric properties, captures variance not measured by stable differences in cognitive styles, and the separate factors are related to posttraumatic distress and growth as predicted by existing models of PTG.
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ABSTRACT: The study explores two problems rarely discussed in literature. Firstly, it presents the psychological consequences of traumatic stress in perpetrators of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The attention of both clinicians and researchers is very seldom focused on this group of MVA participants, as in the natural way, people have a tendency to empathise with victims and distancing from those who make harm to others. MVA perpetrators usually feel no right to complain about experienced symptoms of poor well-being, and guilt prevent them against searching for any help. Such a situation may lead to further problems related to traffic safety, as persistent and untreated symptoms of PTSD or other anxiety disorders may negatively affect driving behaviour. Secondly, apart from post-traumatic psychopathology, the symptoms of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in MVA perpetrators together with factors related to them are analysed in the study. The examination results from the comprehensive sample of MVA perpetrators (n = 236) referred to Occupational Medicine Centres in the catchment area of Mazowieckie Voivodship, Poland, indicate that both PTSD and PTG symptoms are experienced by MVA perpetrators. The key predictors of PTG are neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness and intensity of PTSD symptoms. Moreover, sex and perpetrators’ injuries during the accident seem to play a vital role in the process of post-traumatic growth. Those of subjects who were women or were injured generally declared more positive changes in their life as a consequences of the accident they caused.Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 05/2012; 15(5):565-574. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although many studies have detailed the maladies imposed by Hurricane Katrina, little work has examined potential benefits following the storm. Posttraumatic growth describes personal betterment or development following a traumatic event in areas such as perceived changes in self, a changed sense of relations with others, and a changed philosophy of life. Researchers have demonstrated a relation between posttraumatic growth and varying factors, including positive religious coping. The current study attempted to establish deliberate cognitive processing (or rumination) as a mediator between religious coping and posttraumatic growth in a sample of hurricane-exposed women. Results suggested that deliberate cognitive processing fully mediated the relation between religious coping and posttraumatic growth.Journal of Loss and Trauma 01/2012; · 1.03 Impact Factor
- 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0574-9