Altered 13C glucose metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in the MK-801 rat model of schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Using a modified MK-801 (dizocilpine) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor hypofunction model for schizophrenia, we analyzed glycolysis, as well as glutamatergic, GABAergic, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. Rats received an injection of MK-801 daily for 6 days and on day 6, they also received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose. Extracts of frontal cortex (FCX), parietal and temporal cortex (PTCX), thalamus, striatum, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and hippocampus were analyzed using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A pronounced reduction in glycolysis was found only in PTCX, in which (13)C labeling of glucose, lactate, and alanine was decreased. (13)C enrichment in lactate, however, was reduced in all areas investigated. The largest reductions in glutamate labeling were detected in FCX and PTCX, whereas in hippocampus, striatum, and Nac, (13)C labeling of glutamate was only slightly but significantly reduced. The thalamus was the only region with unaffected glutamate labeling. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) labeling was reduced in all areas, but most significantly in FCX. Glutamine and aspartate labeling was unchanged. Mitochondrial metabolites were also affected. Fumarate labeling was reduced in FCX and thalamus, whereas malate labeling was reduced in FCX, PTCX, striatum, and NAc. Dopamine turnover was decreased in FCX and thalamus, whereas that of serotonin was unchanged in all regions. In conclusion, neurotransmitter metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop is severely impaired in the MK-801 (dizocilpine) NMDA receptor hypofunction animal model for schizophrenia.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Asta Kristine Håberg, Jun 18, 2015
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ABSTRACT: In the current study, we have evaluated cerebral atrophy, neurometabolite homeostasis and neural energetics in MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. In addition, the efficacy of acute L-DOPA treatment for the reversal of altered metabolic functions was also evaluated. Cerebral atrophy and neurochemical profile were monitored in vivo using MRI and (1) H MR Spectroscopy. Cerebral energetics was studied by (1) H-[(13) C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of (13) C labeled [1,6-(13) C2 ]glucose or [2-(13) C]acetate. MPTP treatment led to reduction in paw grip strength and increased level of GABA and myo-inositol in striatum and olfactory bulb. (13) C Labeling of glutamate-C4 (1.93±0.24 vs 1.48±0.06μmol/g), GABA-C2 (0.24±0.04 vs 0.18±0.02μmol/g) and glutamaine-C4 (0.26±0.04 vs 0.20±0.04μmol/g) from [1,6-(13) C2 ]glucose was found to be decreased with MPTP exposure in striatum as well as in other brain regions. However, glutamine-C4 labeling from [2-(13) C]acetate was found to be increased in the striatum of the MPTP-treated mice. Acute L-DOPA treatment failed to normalize the increased ventricular size and level of metabolites but recovered the paw grip strength and (13) C labeling of amino acids from [1,6-(13) C2 ]glucose and [2-(13) C]acetate in MPTP-treated mice. These data indicate that brain energy metabolism is impaired in Parkinson's disease and acute L-DOPA therapy could temporarily recover the cerebral metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2013; DOI:10.1111/jnc.12407 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1), enolase 2 (ENO2), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours), and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI) following long term treatment (72 hours). Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC) under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in schizophrenia.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 05/2015; 09. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00180 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the genome wide supported psychosis susceptibility neurogranin (NRGN) gene is expressed in human brains, it is unclear how it impacts brain morphology in schizophrenia. We investigated the influence of NRGN rs12807809 on cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and shapes in patients with schizophrenia. One hundred and fifty six subjects (91 patients with schizophrenia and 65 healthy controls) underwent structural MRI scans and their blood samples were genotyped. A brain mapping algorithm, large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping, was used to perform group analysis of subcortical shapes and cortical thickness. Patients with risk TT genotype were associated with widespread cortical thinning involving frontal, parietal and temporal cortices compared with controls with TT genotype. No volumetric difference in subcortical structures (hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia) was observed between risk TT genotype in patients and controls. However, patients with risk TT genotype were associated with thalamic shape abnormalities involving regions related to pulvinar and medial dorsal nuclei. Our results revealed the influence of the NRGN gene on thalamocortical morphology in schizophrenia involving widespread cortical thinning and thalamic shape abnormalities. These findings help to clarify underlying NRGN mediated pathophysiological mechanisms involving cortical-subcortical brain networks in schizophrenia.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e85603. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085603 · 3.53 Impact Factor