The effect and stability of MVCT images on adaptive TomoTherapy

Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 1.17). 01/2010; 11(4):3229.
Source: PubMed


Use of helical TomoTherapy-based MVCT imaging for adaptive planning is becoming increasingly popular. Treatment planning and dose calculations based on MVCT require an image value to electron density calibration to remain stable over the course of treatment time. In this work, we have studied the dosimetric impact on TomoTherapy treatment plans due to variation in image value to density table (IVDT) curve as a function of target degradation. We also have investigated the reproducibility and stability of the TomoTherapy MVCT image quality over time. Multiple scans of the TomoTherapy "Cheese" phantom were performed over a period of five months. Over this period, a difference of 4.7% in the HU values was observed in high-density regions while there was no significant variation in the image values for the low densities of the IVDT curve. Changes in the IVDT curves before and after target replacement were measured. Two clinical treatment sites, pelvis and prostate, were selected to study the dosimetric impact of this variation. Dose was recalculated on the MVCTs with the planned fluence using IVDT curves acquired before and after target change. For the cases studied, target replacement resulted in an overall difference of less than 5%, which can be significant for hypo-fractionated cases. Hence, it is recommended to measure the IVDT curves on a monthly basis and after any major repairs/replacements.

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Available from: Poonam Yadav, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "Helical tomotherapy's ability to generate megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) images is mainly used to provide proper daily patient positioning.[1314] Past studies have shown that although their quality is surpassed by that of kilovoltage (kV) CT images, the MVCT images produced by a helical tomotherapy unit are adequate for image guidance in radiotherapy and can be used reliably for re-contouring.[1516] This property makes it possible to create adapted plans that account for changes in anatomy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Helical tomotherapy's ability to provide daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) images for patient set-up verification allows for the creation of adapted plans. As plans become more complex by introducing sharper dose gradients in an effort to spare healthy tissue, inter-fraction changes of organ position with respect to plan become a limiting factor in the correct dose delivery to the target. Tomotherapy's planned adaptive option provides the possibility to evaluate the dose distribution for each fraction and subsequently adapt the original plan to the current anatomy. In this study, 30 adapted plans were created using new contours based on the daily MVCT studies of a bladder cancer patient with considerable anatomical variations. Dose to the rectum and two planning target volumes (PTVs) were compared between the original plan, the dose that was actually delivered to the patient, and the theoretical dose from the 30 adapted plans. The adaptation simulation displayed a lower dose to 35% and 50% of the rectum compared to no adaptation at all, while maintaining an equivalent dose to the PTVs. Although online adaptation is currently too time-consuming, it has the potential to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy.
    Journal of Medical Physics 04/2012; 37(2):97-101. DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.94744
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    • "Presently, adaptive planning is frequently done on MVCT and kV-CBCT images to conform the dose distribution and dose coverage to the target and OAR due to significant weight loss during the treatment, shrinkage in tumor or re-growth of the tumor volume. For any sort of the adaptive planning, it is important to make use of correct parameters like image set and CT to density table.11 Doing adaptive planning on the regular basis requires a routine check of the machine’s CT to density curve. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the stability of CT to density curve of kilovoltage cone-beam computerized tomography (kV CBCT) imaging modality over the period of six months. We also, investigated the viability of using image value to density table (IVDT) generated at different time, for adaptive radiotherapy treatment planning. The consequences of target volume change and the efficacy of kV CBCT for adaptive planning issues is investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Standard electron density phantom was used to establish CT to electron density calibrations curve. The CT to density curve for the CBCT images were observed for the period of six months. The kV CBCT scans used for adaptive planning was acquired with an on-board imager system mounted on a "Trilogy" linear accelerator. kV CBCT images were acquired for daily setup registration. The effect of variations in CT to density curve was studied on two clinical cases: prostate and lung. The soft tissue contouring is superior in kV CBCT scans in comparison to mega voltage CT (MVCT) scans. The CT to density curve for the CBCT images was found steady over six months. Due to difficulty in attaining the reproducibility in daily setup for the prostate treatment, there is a day-to-day difference in dose to the rectum and bladder. There is no need for generating a new CT to density curve for the adaptive planning on the kV CBCT images. Also, it is viable to perform the adaptive planning to check the dose to target and organ at risk (OAR) without performing a new kV CT scan, which will reduce the dose to the patient.
    Radiology and Oncology 09/2011; 45(3):220-6. DOI:10.2478/v10019-011-0024-5 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Megavoltage CT (MVCT) simulation on the TomoTherapy Hi·Art system is an alternative to conventional CT for treatment planning in the presence of severe metal artifact. StatRT is a new feature that was implemented on the TomoTherapy operator station for performing online MVCT scanning, treatment planning and treatment delivery in one session. The clinical feasibility of using the StatRT technique and MVCT simulation to palliative treatment for a patient with substantial spinal metallic hardware is described. A patient with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer involving the thoracic spine underwent conventional kilovoltage CT simulation. The metal artifact due to stainless steel spine-stabilizing rods was too severe for treatment planning, despite attempts to correct using density override. The patient was then re-scanned using MVCT on a tomotherapy unit. Plans were generated using both StatRT and conventional tomotherapy planning (Tomo plan) with different settings for comparison. StatRT planning ran a total of five iterations in a short planning window (10-15 min). Two Tomo plans were generated using: (1) five iterations in the "full scatter" mode, and (2) 300 iterations in the "beamlet" mode. It was noted that the DVH of the StatRT plan was almost identical to the Tomo plan optimized by the "full scatter" mode and the same number of iterations. Dose distribution analysis reveals that these three planning methods yielded comparable doses to heart, lungs and targets. This work also demonstrated that undermodulation can result in a high degree of thread effects. The overall time for the treatment process (including 7 minutes for simulation, 15 minutes for contouring, 10 minutes for planning and 5 minutes for delivery) decreases from hours to around 40 minutes using the StatRT procedure. StatRT is a feasible treatment-planning tool for physicians to scan, contour and treat patients within one hour. This can be particularly beneficial in urgent palliative treatments.
    Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics 01/2010; 12(1):3348. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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