The effect and stability of MVCT images on adaptive TomoTherapy

Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 1.17). 01/2010; 11(4):3229.
Source: PubMed


Use of helical TomoTherapy-based MVCT imaging for adaptive planning is becoming increasingly popular. Treatment planning and dose calculations based on MVCT require an image value to electron density calibration to remain stable over the course of treatment time. In this work, we have studied the dosimetric impact on TomoTherapy treatment plans due to variation in image value to density table (IVDT) curve as a function of target degradation. We also have investigated the reproducibility and stability of the TomoTherapy MVCT image quality over time. Multiple scans of the TomoTherapy "Cheese" phantom were performed over a period of five months. Over this period, a difference of 4.7% in the HU values was observed in high-density regions while there was no significant variation in the image values for the low densities of the IVDT curve. Changes in the IVDT curves before and after target replacement were measured. Two clinical treatment sites, pelvis and prostate, were selected to study the dosimetric impact of this variation. Dose was recalculated on the MVCTs with the planned fluence using IVDT curves acquired before and after target change. For the cases studied, target replacement resulted in an overall difference of less than 5%, which can be significant for hypo-fractionated cases. Hence, it is recommended to measure the IVDT curves on a monthly basis and after any major repairs/replacements.

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    • "Helical tomotherapy's ability to generate megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) images is mainly used to provide proper daily patient positioning.[1314] Past studies have shown that although their quality is surpassed by that of kilovoltage (kV) CT images, the MVCT images produced by a helical tomotherapy unit are adequate for image guidance in radiotherapy and can be used reliably for re-contouring.[1516] This property makes it possible to create adapted plans that account for changes in anatomy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Helical tomotherapy's ability to provide daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) images for patient set-up verification allows for the creation of adapted plans. As plans become more complex by introducing sharper dose gradients in an effort to spare healthy tissue, inter-fraction changes of organ position with respect to plan become a limiting factor in the correct dose delivery to the target. Tomotherapy's planned adaptive option provides the possibility to evaluate the dose distribution for each fraction and subsequently adapt the original plan to the current anatomy. In this study, 30 adapted plans were created using new contours based on the daily MVCT studies of a bladder cancer patient with considerable anatomical variations. Dose to the rectum and two planning target volumes (PTVs) were compared between the original plan, the dose that was actually delivered to the patient, and the theoretical dose from the 30 adapted plans. The adaptation simulation displayed a lower dose to 35% and 50% of the rectum compared to no adaptation at all, while maintaining an equivalent dose to the PTVs. Although online adaptation is currently too time-consuming, it has the potential to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy.
    Journal of Medical Physics 04/2012; 37(2):97-101. DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.94744
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    • "Presently, adaptive planning is frequently done on MVCT and kV-CBCT images to conform the dose distribution and dose coverage to the target and OAR due to significant weight loss during the treatment, shrinkage in tumor or re-growth of the tumor volume. For any sort of the adaptive planning, it is important to make use of correct parameters like image set and CT to density table.11 Doing adaptive planning on the regular basis requires a routine check of the machine’s CT to density curve. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the stability of CT to density curve of kilovoltage cone-beam computerized tomography (kV CBCT) imaging modality over the period of six months. We also, investigated the viability of using image value to density table (IVDT) generated at different time, for adaptive radiotherapy treatment planning. The consequences of target volume change and the efficacy of kV CBCT for adaptive planning issues is investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Standard electron density phantom was used to establish CT to electron density calibrations curve. The CT to density curve for the CBCT images were observed for the period of six months. The kV CBCT scans used for adaptive planning was acquired with an on-board imager system mounted on a "Trilogy" linear accelerator. kV CBCT images were acquired for daily setup registration. The effect of variations in CT to density curve was studied on two clinical cases: prostate and lung. The soft tissue contouring is superior in kV CBCT scans in comparison to mega voltage CT (MVCT) scans. The CT to density curve for the CBCT images was found steady over six months. Due to difficulty in attaining the reproducibility in daily setup for the prostate treatment, there is a day-to-day difference in dose to the rectum and bladder. There is no need for generating a new CT to density curve for the adaptive planning on the kV CBCT images. Also, it is viable to perform the adaptive planning to check the dose to target and organ at risk (OAR) without performing a new kV CT scan, which will reduce the dose to the patient.
    Radiology and Oncology 09/2011; 45(3):220-6. DOI:10.2478/v10019-011-0024-5 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems can provide valuable information about MLC behavior during delivery. A technique to estimate the TomoTherapy binary MLC leaf open time from exit detector signals is described. This technique is shown to be both robust and accurate for delivery verification.
    Medical Physics 01/2012; 39(1):143-51. DOI:10.1118/1.3666762 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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