Identification of novel diphenyl urea inhibitors of Mt-GuaB2 active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ABSTRACT In contrast with most bacteria, which harbour a single inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) gene, the genomic sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv predicts three genes encoding IMPDH: guaB1, guaB2 and guaB3. These three genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate functional IMPDH activity. Purified recombinant Mt-GuaB2, which uses inosine monophosphate as a substrate, was identified as the only active GuaB orthologue in M. tuberculosis and showed optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 37 °C. Mt-GuaB2 was inhibited significantly in vitro by a panel of diphenyl urea-based derivatives, which were also potent anti-mycobacterial agents against M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, with MICs in the range of 0.2-0.5 μg ml(-1). When Mt-GuaB2 was overexpressed on a plasmid in trans in M. smegmatis, a diphenyl urea analogue showed a 16-fold increase in MIC. Interestingly, when Mt-GuaB orthologues (Mt-GuaB1 and 3) were also overexpressed on a plasmid in trans in M. smegmatis, they also conferred resistance, suggesting that although these Mt-GuaB orthologues were inactive in vitro, they presumably titrate the effect of the inhibitory properties of the active compounds in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of tuberculosis is becoming more difficult due to the ever increasing prevalence of drug resistance. Thus, it is imperative that novel anti-tuberculosis agents, with unique mechanisms of action, be discovered and developed. The direct anti-tubercular testing of a small compound library led to discovery of adamantyl urea hit compound 1. In this study, the hit was followed up through the synthesis of an optimization library. This library was generated by systematically replacing each section of the molecule with a similar moiety until a clear structure-activity relationship was obtained with respect to anti-tubercular activity. The best compounds in this series contained a 1-adamantyl-3-phenyl urea core and had potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis plus an acceptable therapeutic index. It was noted that the compounds identified and the pharmacophore developed is consistent with inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase family of enzymes. Consequently, the compounds were tested for inhibition of representative epoxide hydrolases: M. tuberculosis EphB and EphE; and human soluble epoxide hydrolase. Many of the optimized inhibitors showed both potent EphB and EphE inhibition suggesting the antitubercular activity is through inhibition of multiple epoxide hydrolase enzymes. The inhibitors also showed potent inhibition of humans soluble epoxide hydrolase, but limited cytotoxicity suggesting that future studies must be towards increasing the selectivity of epoxide hydrolase inhibition towards the M. tuberculosis enzymes.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2011; 19(18):5585-95. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.07.034 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. With the emergence of multidrug resistant TB, extensively drug resistant TB and HIV-associated TB it is imperative that new drug targets be identified. The potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a novel drug target was explored in the present study. IMPDH exclusively catalyzes the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP) in the presence of the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). Although the enzyme is a dehydrogenase, the enzyme does not catalyze the reverse reaction i.e. the conversion of XMP to IMP. Unlike other bacteria, M. tuberculosis harbors three IMPDH-like genes, designated as Mt-guaB1, Mt-guaB2 and Mt-guaB3 respectively. Of the three putative IMPDH's, we previously confirmed that Mt-GuaB2 was the only functional ortholog by characterizing the enzyme kinetically. Using an in silico approach based on designed scaffolds, a series of novel classes of inhibitors was identified. The inhibitors possess good activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC values in the range of 0.4 to 11.4 µg mL(-1). Among the identified ligands, two inhibitors have nanomolar K(i)s against the Mt-GuaB2 enzyme.PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33886. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033886 · 3.23 Impact Factor