Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A clinicopathological analysis of 72 cases

Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologique et Service d'Urologie, Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.19). 12/2010; 42(7):650-4. DOI: 10.3109/00313025.2010.522173
Source: PubMed


Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of the bladder is an aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma (UC). It is unknown if any amount of a micropapillary component justifies the diagnosis of MPC. It is also unknown if surface MPC also has aggressive potential.
We studied 72 patients with UC with a micropapillary component in transurethral resections of bladder (TURB) diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. Fifty-seven patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Tumours were classified according to pathological (pT) stage and percentage of MPC (≤ 10%, 10-49%, 50-100%). This was correlated with clinical data and follow up. Significant factors in univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate analysis.
In the TURB specimens, 12 had pTa, 33 pT1 and 27 pT2 tumours with 23% also displaying urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). On cystectomy, the MPC component was upstaged in 79% of cases. Twenty-five (35%) patients had metastases at presentation or nodal metastases at cystectomy and 27 patients (38%) died of disease. Mean survival was 17.8 months. Of 12 pTa MPC cases, eight were treated with cystectomy, all displaying invasive carcinoma including five (62%) with pT2-pT4 disease. Three (25%) of these patients died of disease. Seven patients had a MPC component of <10% all of whom had cystectomy. Six of these had invasive carcinoma including two (33%) with pT2-pT4 disease. One (15%) of these patients died of disease. On univariate analysis, the proportion of the MPC component on TURB and pathological stage predicted disease specific survival (p=0.01 and 0.004, respectively), while presence of CIS predicted recurrence (p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, CIS predicted recurrence (p=0.003); however, the proportion of MPC in TURB did not remain significant in predicting disease specific survival. The pathological stage of MPC remained significant in predicting disease specific survival (p=0.04).
Any amount of MPC, even <10% is significant in urothelial carcinoma and should be reported. Surface MPC is associated with invasive carcinoma in most cases which can be high stage. Adequate sampling to include detrusor muscle is crucial in these cases. Associated CIS is important to be recognised and reported as this also impacts on clinical outcome.

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    • "In our study, MPUC patients showed higher T stages, and higher frequency of tumor recurrence and more metastasis than HGUC patients, as also shown in previous studies.2,15,16 This study contained a small number of cases and the follow-up period was short. "
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    ABSTRACT: Micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) showed distinct pathologic features and aggressive behavior. The cytologic findings of MPUC are still indistinct. In this study, we evaluated the cytological findings of MPUC compared with those of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). The voided urine cytology of 8 cases of MPUC and 8 cases of HGUC was reviewed. Following cytological parameters were evaluated: cellularity, background, number of small, tight papillary clusters, small acinar structure, scattered single cells, cytoplasmic features, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear membrane irregularity, hyperchromasia, chromatin pattern and nucleoli. Compared to that of HGUC, cytology of MPUC showed large numbers of small, tight papillary clusters, small acinar structure, few numbers of single cells, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Other parameters were similar between the two groups; both groups showed similar cellularity, dense or vacuolated cytoplasm, moderate to severe nuclear pleomorphism, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse granular chromatin, and small and prominent nucleoli. The urine cytology of MPUCs showed smaller and tighter papillary cell clusters, more small acinar structures, fewer numbers of scattered single cells, and more hyperchromatic nuclei than that of HGUC. These features can help to distinguish MPUC and HGUC and offer an early cytological diagnosis of MPUC.
    The Korean Journal of Pathology 08/2013; 47(4):365-71. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.4.365 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Nevertheless, the pathologic stage of MPBC remained significant in predicting DSS. 7 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To elucidate the oncologic behavior of Micropapillary Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma (MPBC), a rare aggressive variant histology. Methods: All MPBC patients in SEER 17 database were compared with those with traditional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine OS and CSS. A Cox proportional hazards model (CPH) was constructed to test the effect of covariates on outcomes. Results: From 2001-2008, 120 MPBC patients were identified, 0.1% of all bladder cancer. MPBC presented with more high grade (86.1% vs. 38.7%, p<0.0001) and more high stage disease (40.8% NMI vs. 90.4% NMI, p < 0.0001) than UC. Low grade (LG) NMI MPBC had worse OS and CSS compared to LG UC (p=0.0037, p<0.0001 respectively), and did no better than high grade (HG) NMI MPBC. No difference was detected between HG NMI MPBC and HG NMI UC pts. A CPH model controlling for stage, grade, treatment, age, race, and sex detected no significant survival difference in MPBC vs. UC (HR 1.04, p=0.7966). For NMI MPBC (n=49), only 4 patients underwent definitive therapy, of whom none died of disease. However, in those not receiving definitive therapy (n=45), 7 cancer specific deaths occurred (15.6%). Conclusion: Controlling for stage and grade, no survival difference could be detected between MPBC and UC. Low grade NMI MPBC behaved similarly to both high grade MPBC and high grade UC. We propose that all MPBC (regardless of grade) be managed as high grade disease, and that strong consideration for definitive therapy should be given in all cases.
    Journal of Cancer 05/2013; 4(4):336-42. DOI:10.7150/jca.6215 · 3.27 Impact Factor
    • "Patients with at least 50% uPC had a mean survival of 12.1 months. Patients with any proportion of uPC were at high risk of being upstaged at cystectomy and of dying of cancer.[5] In the current study, cell clusters were identified in 6 of 7 (86%) specimens from 6 patients for whom uPC comprised at least 50% of total carcinoma in the corresponding surgical pathology specimen. "
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    ABSTRACT: The micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (uPC) is a rare variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. Definitive surgery may represent optimal management of low stage tumors. Urine cytology is indispensable in the screening and follow-up of urinary tract cancer. However, cytopathological criteria for diagnosis of uPC and its differentiation from conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC) are not well-defined. Twenty-five cases of histologically confirmed micropapillary uPC from 21 patients were compared to 25 cases of histologically confirmed high-grade CUC. In uPC cases, cell clusters were identified in 13 of 25 specimens from 10 patients. Six of the 13 specimens containing cell clusters corresponded to surgical pathology specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. In contrast, only 1 of the 12 urine specimens devoid of cell clusters corresponded to surgical specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. Cytomorphologic features of urinary specimens from patients with histologically confirmed micropapillary carcinoma were generally similar to those from patients with high-grade CUC, making it difficult to distinguish these entities in exfoliative urine specimens. Further investigation of the core cytopathological characteristics of uPC is warranted to refine its diagnostic criteria by exfoliative urine cytology.
    CytoJournal 02/2013; 10:4. DOI:10.4103/1742-6413.107986
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