A novel pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine is a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases 1, 2, and 9, which demonstrates antitumor effects in human tumor xenografts following oral administration.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are central to the appropriate regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression. Abnormalities in CDK activity and regulation are common features of cancer, making CDK family members attractive targets for the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we report the identification of a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derived compound, 4k (BS-194), as a selective and potent CDK inhibitor, which inhibits CDK2, CDK1, CDK5, CDK7, and CDK9 (IC₅₀= 3, 30, 30, 250, and 90 nmol/L, respectively). Cell-based studies showed inhibition of the phosphorylation of CDK substrates, Rb and the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, down-regulation of cyclins A, E, and D1, and cell cycle block in the S and G₂/M phases. Consistent with these findings, 4k demonstrated potent antiproliferative activity in 60 cancer cell lines tested (mean GI₅₀= 280 nmol/L). Pharmacokinetic studies showed that 4k is orally bioavailable, with an elimination half-life of 178 min following oral dosing in mice. When administered at a concentration of 25 mg/kg orally, 4k inhibited human tumor xenografts and suppressed CDK substrate phosphorylation. These findings identify 4k as a novel, potent CDK selective inhibitor with potential for oral delivery in cancer patients.
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ABSTRACT: PCNA is an essential factor for DNA replication and repair. It forms a ring shaped structure of 86 kDa by the symmetric association of three identical protomers. The ring encircles the DNA and acts as a docking platform for other proteins, most of them containing the PCNA Interaction Protein sequence (PIP-box). We have used NMR to characterize the interactions of PCNA with several other proteins and fragments in solution. The binding of the PIP-box peptide of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 to PCNA is consistent with the crystal structure of the complex. A shorter p21 peptide binds with reduced affinity but retains most of the molecular recognition determinants. However the binding of the corresponding peptide of the tumor suppressor ING1 is extremely weak, indicating that slight deviations from the consensus PIP-box sequence dramatically reduce the affinity for PCNA, in contrast with a proposed less stringent PIP-box sequence requirement. We could not detect any binding between PCNA and the MCL-1 or the CDK2 protein, reported to interact with PCNA in biochemical assays. This suggests that they do not bind directly to PCNA, or they do but very weakly, with additional unidentified factors stabilizing the interactions in the cell. Backbone dynamics measurements show three PCNA regions with high relative flexibility, including the interdomain connector loop (IDCL) and the C-terminus, both of them involved in the interaction with the PIP-box. Our work provides the basis for high resolution studies of direct ligand binding to PCNA in solution.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48390. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) with small molecules has been suggested as a strategy for treatment of cancer, based on deregulation of CDKs commonly found in many types of human tumors. Here, a new potent CDK2 inhibitor with pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold has been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in cellular and biochemical assays. 7-Benzylamino-5(R)-[2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]amino-3-isopropyl-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine, compound 7, was prepared as a bioisostere of the well-known CDK inhibitor roscovitine. An X-ray crystal structure of compound 7 bound to CDK2 has been determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of roscovitine. Protein kinase selectivity profile of compound 7 and its biological effects (cell cycle arrest, dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of homologous recombination) are consistent with CDK inhibition as a primary mode of action. Importantly, as the anticancer activities of the pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine 7 exceed those of its bioisostere roscovitine, compound 7 reported here may be preferable for cancer therapy.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2011; 54(8):2980-93. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are core components of the cell cycle machinery that govern the transition between phases during cell cycle progression. Abnormalities in CDKs activity and regulation are common features of cancer, making CDK family members attractive targets for the development of anticancer drugs. Their inhibitors have entered in clinical trials to treat cancer. Very recently, Heathcote et al. (J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53:8508-8522) have found a ligand BS194 that has a high affinity with CDK2 (IC(50) = 3 nm) but shows low affinity with CDK1 (IC(50) = 30 nm). To understand the selectivity, we used homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and free-energy calculation to analyze the interactions. A rational three-dimensional model of the CDK1/BS194 complex is built. We found that Leu83 is a key residue that recognizes BS194 more effectively with CDK2 with good binding free energies rather than CDK1. Energetic analysis reveals that van der Waals interaction and non-polar contributions to solvent are favorable in the formation of complexes and amine group of the ligand, which plays a crucial role for binding selectivity between CDK2 and CDK1. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Molecular Recognition 10/2012; 25(10):504-12. · 3.01 Impact Factor