A Novel Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine Is a Potent Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinases 1, 2, and 9, Which Demonstrates Antitumor Effects, in Human Tumor Xenografts Following Oral Administration
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are central to the appropriate regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression. Abnormalities in CDK activity and regulation are common features of cancer, making CDK family members attractive targets for the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we report the identification of a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derived compound, 4k (BS-194), as a selective and potent CDK inhibitor, which inhibits CDK2, CDK1, CDK5, CDK7, and CDK9 (IC₅₀= 3, 30, 30, 250, and 90 nmol/L, respectively). Cell-based studies showed inhibition of the phosphorylation of CDK substrates, Rb and the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, down-regulation of cyclins A, E, and D1, and cell cycle block in the S and G₂/M phases. Consistent with these findings, 4k demonstrated potent antiproliferative activity in 60 cancer cell lines tested (mean GI₅₀= 280 nmol/L). Pharmacokinetic studies showed that 4k is orally bioavailable, with an elimination half-life of 178 min following oral dosing in mice. When administered at a concentration of 25 mg/kg orally, 4k inhibited human tumor xenografts and suppressed CDK substrate phosphorylation. These findings identify 4k as a novel, potent CDK selective inhibitor with potential for oral delivery in cancer patients.
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ABSTRACT: Malignant cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and related diseases are heterogeneous and consist primarily of long-lived resting cells in the periphery and a minor subset of dividing cells in proliferating centers. Both cell populations have different molecular signatures that play a major role in determining their sensitivity to therapy. Contemporary approaches to treating CLL are heavily reliant on cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. However, none of the current treatment regimens can be considered curative. Pharmacological CDK inhibitors have extended the repertoire of potential drugs for CLL. Multi-targeted CDK inhibitors affect CDKs involved in regulating both cell cycle progression and transcription. Their interference with transcriptional elongation represses anti-apoptotic proteins and, thus, promotes the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, there is evidence that treatment with CDK inhibitors can overcome resistance to therapy. The pharmacological CDK inhibitors have great potential for use in combination with other therapeutics and represent promising tools for the development of new curative treatments for CLL.Future medicinal chemistry 03/2012; 4(4):395-424. DOI:10.4155/fmc.12.12 · 4.00 Impact Factor
- Journal of Molecular Recognition 01/2012; 25:504-512. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Aflica, malaria kills one child each minute. It is also responsible for about one million deaths worldwide each year. Plasmodium falciparum, is the protozoan responsible for the most lethal form of the disease, with resistance developing against the available anti-malarial drugs. Among newly proposed anti-malaria targets, are the P. falciparum cyclin-dependent kinases (PfCDKs). There are involved in different stages of the protozoan growth and development but share high sequence homology with human cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). We previously reported the synthesis of CDKs inhibitors that are structurally-related to (R)-roscovitine, a 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine, and they showed activity against neuronal diseases and cancers. In this report, we describe the synthesis and the characterization of new CDK inhibitors, active in reducing the in vitro growth of P. falciparum (3D7 and 7G8 strains). Six compounds are more potent inhibitors than roscovitine, and three exhibited IC50 values close to 1 µM for both 3D7 and 7G8 strains. Although, such molecules do inhibit P. falciparum growth, they require further studies to improve their selectivity for PfCDKs.Molecules 09/2014; 19(9):15237-15257. DOI:10.3390/molecules190915237 · 2.10 Impact Factor