Uraemic vasculopathy in children with chronic kidney disease: prevention or damage limitation?
ABSTRACT Since the inception of pediatric dialysis programmes nearly 50 years ago, there have been vast improvements in both the technology and expertise in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nevertheless, children on dialysis continue to have a significantly higher mortality than their healthy peers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in this group. Chronic kidney disease is described as the "perfect storm" of risk factors for CVD development, and vascular calcification is a highly regulated cell-mediated process with several promoters and inhibitors of calcification. CVD begins early in the course of CKD and there is an independent and graded association between cardiovascular morbidity and renal decline. Also, it is shown that once vascular damage and calcification begin, they progress inexorably in the uraemic milieu and may only be partially reversed after successful transplantation. Thus, preventing the development of CVD is key, and early identification and management of specific CVD-related risk factors should begin from the early stages of CKD. While the vasculopathy of childhood CKD is clearly multifactorial, clinical, epidemiological and cell biology studies provide converging evidence pointing to the role of dysregulated mineral metabolism as an important modifiable risk factor in the development of vascular calcification. In this review we focus on the role of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D in ectopic vascular calcification, and discuss the role of screening, early intervention and management of established vascular calcification.
SourceAvailable from: Dusan Paripovic[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Renal hypertension is one of the earliest and the most prevalent complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among renal patients, hypertension is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. For casual blood pressure measurement, the best method is auscultatory, while for ambulatory blood pressure measurement, oscillometric method is the most commonly used. Both casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement provide more powerful means of diagnosing hypertension. Masked hypertension is a condition in which casual blood pressure is normal but ambulatory blood pressure is elevated. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is higher with masked hypertension as compared to the controls. Children and adolescents with CKD are at high risk of cardiovascular disease that has been established as the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy remains the most thoroughly documented form of end-organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents with CKD. Based on clear evidence on the correlation between blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and renal function, renal hypertension must be aggressively treated. Target blood pressure for patients with renal hypertension should be at low normal values: < 75 percentile for patients without proteinuria and <50 percentile for patients with proteinuria. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists are considered the first choice pharmacological option in hypertensive CKD 2-4 patients while the management of volume overload is the most important in dialysis patients. Successful transplantation can eliminate or significantly improve uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors and increase predicted life expectancy.Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 01/2014; 142(1-2):113-7. DOI:10.2298/SARH1402113P · 0.17 Impact Factor
Article: Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preemptive renal transplantation is the method of choice for end stage renal disease in childhood and adolescence. However, without preemptive transplantation, waiting time for kidney transplantation might exceed several years. The poor quality of life and the extremely high morbidity and mortality rates of dialysis patients have led to the development of intensified hemodialysis programs in which the modes of dialysis (short daily, nocturnal intermittent or daily nocturnal) are different. Such programs have been shown to significantly improve several uremia-associated parameters, such as blood pressure, phosphate control, anemia and growth retardation, in both adult and pediatric (children and adolescents) patients and lead to a reduction in medications, including phosphate binders, erythropoietin and antihypertensive agents. Fluid limitations and dietary restrictions can also be lifted. With respect to psychosocial rehabilitation and quality of life, nocturnal intermittent dialysis programs provide a reasonable compromise of all forms of intensified programs. Experiences and practical approaches of our own in-center nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis program in the light of the recent publications are described in this review.Pediatric Nephrology 08/2014; 30(5). DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-2869-5 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are now almost 70 000 dialysis patients in Germany. Conventional hemodialysis does not adequately compensate for malnutrition, arterial hypertension, renal osteopathy, and diminished performance ability. Various strategies for intensified hemodialysis have been implemented in an attempt to lower the considerable morbidity and mortality of end-stage renal failure. We selectively review the literature on intensified dialysis in adults, children, and adolescents. In a randomized, controlled trial (RCT), a group of patients undergoing conventional dialysis was compared to a group undergoing brief, daily dialysis. Daily dialysis significantly improved the combined endpoint of left-ventricular hypertrophy or death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61). In contrast, another, retrospective study found daily dialysis to be associated with higher mortality (15.6 vs. 10.9 deaths, HR 1.6). A prospective case-control study found nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis to be associated with lower mortality than conventional dialysis (1.77 vs. 6.23 per 100 patient-years); this result was confirmed in a further, retrospective study. An RCT on nocturnal dialysis performed every night revealed a significant regression of left-ventricular mass, yet the patients' quality of life improved only in individual domains specifically related to renal function. Small-scale studies of intensified hemodialysis in children and adolescents have found that it leads to a higher growth rate and weight gain. Intensified hemodialysis techniques improve arterial blood pres - sure, uremia-associated variables, and psychosocial variables. They also lower the necessary doses of antihypertensive drugs and phosphate binders. Dietary restrictions need not be as stringent. Further prospective trials are needed for a reliable assessment of the effect of intensified hemodialysis on mortality and quality of life.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 04/2014; 111(14):237-43. DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2014.0237 · 3.61 Impact Factor