Current-use and organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and anaerobic digest.
ABSTRACT Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.
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ABSTRACT: In Europe, 9.3 x 10(6) t(dry weight (dw)) of compost and digestate are produced per year. Most of this is applied to agricultural land, which can lead to considerable inputs of organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to soil. This paper presents an inventory of the pollutant situation in source-separated composts, digestates and presswater in Switzerland by a detailed analysis of over 70 samples. PCB concentrations ( summation PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were significantly higher in urban (median: 30 microg kg(-1)dw, n = 52) than in rural samples (median: 14 microg kg(-1)dw, n = 16). Together with low concentrations in general, this points to aerial deposition on compost input material as the major contamination pathway. Enantiomeric fractions of atropisometric PCB were close to racemic. Median PAH concentration was 3010 microg kg(-1)dw( summation 15PAH, n = 69), and one quarter of the samples exhibited concentrations above the relevant Swiss guide value for compost (4000 microg kg(-1)dw). The levels were influenced by the treatment process (digestate > compost), the season of input material collection (spring-summer > winter > autumn), the particle size (coarse-grained > fine-grained), and maturity (mature > less mature). The main source of PAH in compost was pyrogenic, probably influenced mainly by liquid fossil fuel combustion and some asphalt abrasion, as suggested by multiple linear regression. This study, together with a companion paper reporting on other organic contaminates including emerging compound classes, provides a starting point for a better risk-benefit estimation of the application of compost and digestate to agricultural soil in Switzerland.Journal of Environmental Monitoring 05/2007; 9(5):456-64. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Compost and digestate are important recycling fertilizers and have beneficial effects on soil parameters. However, they can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants. Here, the first comprehensive data set on dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB), brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), pesticides, phthalates, nonylphenol and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in source-separated compost and digestate from Switzerland is presented (n = 3-18). The median summation 17PCDD/F and summation 12DL-PCB concentrations were at 3.2 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 3.0 ng WHO-TEQ kg(-1)dw, respectively. Brominated diphenyl ether 209 (BDE 209) accounted for 72% of the total polyBDE content (10 microg kg(-1)dw). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) levels were at 100 and 0.51 microg kg(-1)dw, respectively. PFAS were identified for the first time in compost and digestate (median concentration 6.3 microg kg(-1)dw, summation 21compounds). Out of 269 pesticides analysed, 30 fungicides, 14 herbicides, eight insecticides and one acaricide were detected. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) median concentration accounted for 280 microg kg(-1)dw and nonylphenol was below the detection limit of 1 mg kg(-1)dw. The sum of short and medium chain CP was between 90 and 390 microg kg(-1)dw. The concentrations observed were at or above the levels found in background soils, which are the main recipient of compost and digestate. Where actually applied, compost can contribute considerably to the total input of organic pollutants to the soil. However, on a total Swiss agricultural area base, inputs seem to be limited.Journal of Environmental Monitoring 06/2007; 9(5):465-72. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the paper is to provide interested parties the methods that were used for generic hazard assessment in The Netherlands, and the resulting so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and the negligible concentrations (NCs) for approximately 150 organic substances and pesticides. The MPCs and NCs were derived for water, sediment, and soil. The concentration in the environment above which the risk of adverse effects was considered unacceptable to ecosystems is called the MPC. The MPCs take into account that the substances are distributed among the different environmental compartments, and are harmonized accordingly. The MPCs served as a basis for the Dutch government to set generic environmental quality standards (EQS) in The Netherlands (IWINS,15). EQS in turn are used by the Dutch Government to assess the environmental quality and for other environmental policy purposes. Concentrations in the environment below which the occurrence of adverse effects is considered to be negligible are called NCs. Hazards must be reduced when the environmental concentration of a substance exceeds its MPC. In-between this limits reduction of hazards is preferable. The MPC is a scientifically derived hazard limit. The NC is simply defined as 1% of the MPC. In general, there is a great demand for ecotoxicological data that currently limits a more reliable estimate of many MPCs. For water, approximately half of the MPCs are derived on the basis of four or more NOECs (no observed effect concentrations). For the other half, MPCs are based on only a few chronic or acute tests. For soil and sediment, however, almost no ecotoxicological data are available, and MPCs for those compartments have, in many cases, been derived from MPCs in water applying the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP-method), resulting in MPCs with greater uncertainty. Some of the methods and underlying assumptions that have been used may need improvement. For example, the factor between MPC and NC, the statistical extrapolation method, the method that is used for secondary poisoning, the role of the background concentrations of ‘naturally’ occurring substances, and the bioavailability and the EqP-method. There is a great need for hazard limits, and the present compilation tries to provide those as well as identifying research gaps.Journal of Environmental Management. 01/2000;