Current-use and Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Biodegradable Fraction of Source Separated Household Waste, Compost, and Anaerobic Digestate
ABSTRACT Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.
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ABSTRACT: Chloronitrobenzenes and chloroanilines are among the recalcitrant, toxic environmental contaminants that pose chronic threat to the health and safety of humans and wildlife. Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) is an emerging environmental chloronitroaromatic contaminant, widely distributed in the environment due to its worldwide intensive use. The interactions between potentially competing microbial processes (i.e., iron reduction, nitrate reduction, methanogenesis, and dechlorination) can significantly influence the environmental fate of PCNB and chloroanilines resulting from the reductive biotransformation of PCNB. This review evaluates presently available toxicity and distribution information as well as the transformation and degradation potential of PCNB and chloroanilines under different environmental conditions.Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 02/2014; 44(5). DOI:10.1080/10643389.2012.728809 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m−3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m−3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m−3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m−3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m−3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m−3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10−4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10−3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.Atmospheric Environment 09/2013; 76:173–180. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.027 · 3.06 Impact Factor