Hormad1 Mutation Disrupts Synaptonemal Complex Formation, Recombination, and Chromosome Segregation in Mammalian Meiosis

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
PLoS Genetics (Impact Factor: 7.53). 11/2010; 6(11):e1001190. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001190
Source: PubMed


Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/) (-)) testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/) (-) testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/) (-) ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/) (-) oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

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Article: Hormad1 Mutation Disrupts Synaptonemal Complex Formation, Recombination, and Chromosome Segregation in Mammalian Meiosis

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    • "In mouse, the HORMA domain containing proteins, HORMAD1 and HORMAD2, are expressed in developing gonads with expression restricted to germ cells (Chen et al., 2005; Pangas et al., 2004; Shin et al., 2010). They localize specifically along unsynapsed chromosomes during meiotic prophase I (Fukuda et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The HORMA domain was discovered in three chromatin-associated proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This domain has also been found in proteins with similar functions in organisms including plants, animals and nematodes. The HORMA domain containing proteins are thought to function as adaptors for meiotic checkpoint protein signaling and in the regulation of meiotic recombination. Surprisingly, new work has disclosed completely unanticipated and diverse functions for the HORMA domain containing proteins. A. M. Villeneuve and colleagues (2013) show that meiosis-specific HORMA domain containing proteins plays a vital role in preventing centriole disengagement during Caenorhabditis elegans spermatocyte meiosis. Another recent study reveals that S. cerevisiae Atg13 HORMA domain acts as a phosphorylation-dependent conformational switch in the cellular autophagic process.
    Gene 05/2014; 545(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2014.05.020 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "scp2 and scp3, genes involved in synaptonemal complex formation, were recently found to be highly expressed in the maturing testis of the scallop Nodipecten subnodosus [6]. This synaptonemal complex is a meiosis-specific structure essential for chromosome pairing since disruption of the localization of scp2 and scp3 during early recombination resulting in aneuploidy [29]. Our results indicate that synaptonemal complex formation, and therefore meiosis I, was occurring from early to late testis maturation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The European clam, Ruditapes decussatus is a species with a high commercial importance in Portugal and other Southern European countries. Its production is almost exclusively based on natural recruitment, which is subject to high annual fluctuations. Increased knowledge of the natural reproductive cycle of R. decussatus and its molecular mechanisms would be particularly important in providing new highly valuable genomic information for better understanding the regulation of reproduction in this economically important aquaculture species. In this study, the transcriptomic bases of R. decussatus reproduction have been analysed using a custom oligonucleotide microarray representing 51,678 assembled contigs. Microarray analyses were performed in four gonadal maturation stages from two different Portuguese wild populations, characterized by different responses to spawning induction when used as progenitors in hatchery. A comparison between the two populations elucidated a specific pathway involved in the recognition signals and binding between the oocyte and components of the sperm plasma membrane. We suggest that this pathway can explain part of the differences in terms of spawning induction success between the two populations. In addition, sexes and reproductive stages were compared and a correlation between mRNA levels and gonadal area was investigated. The lists of differentially expressed genes revealed that sex explains most of the variance in gonadal gene expression. Additionally, genes like Foxl2, vitellogenin, condensing 2, mitotic apparatus protein p62, Cep57, sperm associated antigens 6, 16 and 17, motile sperm domain containing protein 2, sperm surface protein Sp17, sperm flagellar proteins 1 and 2 and dpy-30, were identified as being correlated with the gonad area and therefore supposedly with the number and/or the size of the gametes produced.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92202. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092202 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This protein co-localizes with the SCPs in the axial element, and is a critical component of the synaptonemal complex. Mutant genotypes result in disruption of the localization of SCP2 and SCP3 during early recombination, with loss of the tripartite structure of the synaptonemal complex (axial and central), resulting in aneuploidy [74]. Our results for quantitative expression of scp3 and HORMAD1, which increased from early to late testis maturation stage, indicate that synaptonemal complex formation, and therefore meiosis I, was occurring up to what we named ‘late maturing testing stage’. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the great advances in sequencing technologies, genomic and transcriptomic information for marine non-model species with ecological, evolutionary, and economical interest is still scarce. In this work we aimed to identify genes expressed during spermatogenesis in the functional hermaphrodite scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae), with the purpose of obtaining a panel of genes that would allow for the study of differentially transcribed genes between diploid and triploid scallops in the context of meiotic arrest and reproductive sterility. Because our aim was to isolate genes involved in meiosis and other testis maturation-related processes, we generated suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries of testis vs. inactive gonad. We obtained 352 and 177 ESTs by clone sequencing, and using pyrosequencing (454-Roche) we maximized the identified ESTs to 34,276 reads. A total of 1,153 genes from the testis library had a blastx hit and GO annotation, including genes specific for meiosis, spermatogenesis, sex-differentiation, and transposable elements. Some of the identified meiosis genes function in chromosome pairing (scp2, scp3), recombination and DNA repair (dmc1, rad51, ccnb1ip1/hei10), and meiotic checkpoints (rad1, hormad1, dtl/cdt2). Gene expression analyses in different gametogenic stages in both sexual regions of the gonad of meiosis genes confirmed that the expression was specific or increased towards the maturing testis. Spermatogenesis genes included known testis-specific ones (kelch-10, shippo1, adad1), with some of these known to be associated to sterility. Sex differentiation genes included one of the most conserved genes at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade (dmrt1). Transcript from transposable elements, reverse transcriptase, and transposases in this library evidenced that transposition is an active process during spermatogenesis in N. subnodosus. In relation to the inactive library, we identified 833 transcripts with functional annotation related to activation of the transcription and translation machinery, as well as to germline control and maintenance.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73176. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073176 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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