Improving Surveillance for Pediatric Clostridium difficile Infection Derivation and Validation of an Accurate Case-finding Tool
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
(Impact Factor: 2.72).
11/2010; 30(3):e38-40. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182027c22
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing. Multicenter studies of CDI have been limited by the lack of valid case-finding tools. To facilitate pediatric studies of CDI, we constructed a case-finding tool using administrative data.
A cross-sectional study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database and microbiologic data from 4 member hospitals. Using patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI as the standard, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative (NPV) predictive value of an ICD-9-CM code for identifying children with laboratory-confirmed CDI.
We identified 109 patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI and 119 patients with CDI ICD-9-CM code. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.73%, 99.89%, 73.95%, and 99.92%, respectively, for this comparison. The addition of a billing charge for both C. difficile laboratory test and treatment medication to the ICD-9-CM code increased the specificity and PPV, but resulted in a slight decrease in the sensitivity and NPV. The use of administrative data for identifying pediatric cases of CDI was also compared with that of chart review, and was found to be a stronger surrogate for identifying cases of CDI when compared with microbiology data alone.
These results demonstrate that the use of administrative data for CDI is a reliable and accurate method for identifying pediatric patients with CDI. The use of administrative data could facilitate the completion of larger studies due to its greater accessibility and reduced costs.
Available from: Steven Ye Ching Tong
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Factors associated with clinical disease are myriad and dynamic and include pathogen virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and host susceptibility. Additionally, infection control measures aimed at the environmental niches of S. aureus and therapeutic advances continue to impact upon the incidence and outcomes of staphylococcal infections. This review article focuses on the clinical relevance of advances in our understanding of staphylococcal colonization, virulence, host susceptibility, and therapeutics. Over the past decade key developments have arisen. First, rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have significantly declined in many countries. Second, we have made great strides in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of S. aureus in general and community-associated MRSA in particular. Third, host risk factors for invasive staphylococcal infections, such as advancing age, increasing numbers of invasive medical interventions, and a growing proportion of patients with healthcare contact, remain dynamic. Finally, several new antimicrobial agents active against MRSA have become available for clinical use. Humans and S. aureus co-exist, and the dynamic interface between host, pathogen, and our attempts to influence these interactions will continue to rapidly change. Although progress has been made in the past decade, we are likely to face further surprises such as the recent waves of community-associated MRSA.
Seminars in Immunopathology 12/2011; 34(2):185-200. DOI:10.1007/s00281-011-0300-x · 7.75 Impact Factor
Available from: Dimitri M Drekonja
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Lengthier antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased costs, antimicrobial resistance, and adverse drug events. Therefore, establishing minimum effective antimicrobial treatment durations is an important public health goal. The optimal treatment duration and current treatment patterns for urinary tract infection (UTI) in men are unknown. We used Veterans Affairs administrative data to study male UTI treatment and outcomes.
Male UTI episodes in the Veterans Affairs system (fiscal year 2009) were identified by combining International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes with UTI-relevant antimicrobial prescriptions. Episodes were categorized as index, early recurrence (<30 days), or late recurrence (≥30 days) cases. Drug name, treatment duration, and outcomes (recurrence and Clostridium difficile infection during 12 months) were recorded for index cases. Demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics were assessed for associations with outcomes in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Among 4 854 765 outpatient male veterans, 39 149 UTI episodes involving 33 336 unique patients were identified, including 33 336 index cases (85.2%), 1772 early recurrences (4.5%), and 4041 late recurrences (10.3%). Highest-use antimicrobial agents were ciprofloxacin (62.7%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (26.8%); 35.0% of patients received shorter-duration treatment (≤7 days), and 65.0% of patients received longer-duration treatment (>7 days). Of the index cases, 4.1% were followed by early recurrence and 9.9% by late recurrence. Longer-duration treatment was not associated with a reduction in early or late recurrence but was associated with increased late recurrence compared with shorter-duration treatment (10.8% vs 8.4%, P < .001), including in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.30). In addition, C difficile infection risk was significantly higher with longer-duration vs shorter-duration treatment (0.5% vs 0.3%, P = .02) and exhibited a similar suggestive trend in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.97-2.07).
Longer-duration treatment (>7 days) for male UTI in the outpatient setting was associated with no reduction in early or late recurrence.
Archives of internal medicine 12/2012; 173(1):1-7. DOI:10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.829 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea among adults in Western countries, and is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in children. This review provides an update on the changing epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) for pediatric providers and summarizes current knowledge regarding available therapies.
The incidence of CDI has more than doubled among adults over the past decade, with a particular rise in incidence among patients presenting from the community. CDI has also increased among children in both inpatient and outpatient settings and there is growing evidence that specific populations of children may be at highest risk. Antibiotic-based therapies remain the mainstay of treatment for CDI, but new therapies have been developed with potential future applications in children. Use of nonantibiotic-based therapies is limited in children, but their use has been studied among adults with intractable or recurrent disease.
The rise in incidence of CDI over the past decade warrants increased recognition by pediatric providers. Knowledge of the pediatric populations at highest risk for infection as well as the options for therapy will improve understanding of this changing disease.
Current opinion in pediatrics 12/2012; 25(1). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835bf6c0 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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