The ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins p62/SQSTM1 and NDP52 are recruited independently to bacteria-associated microdomains to target Salmonella to the autophagy pathway

Cell Biology Program, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Autophagy (Impact Factor: 11.42). 03/2011; 7(3):341-5. DOI: 10.4161/auto.7.3.14046
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autophagy is an innate immune defense against bacterial invasion. Recent studies show that two adaptor proteins, p62 and NDP52, are required for autophagy of the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium). However, it is not known why two different adaptors are required to target the same bacterial cargo to autophagy. Here we show that both adaptors are recruited to bacteria with similar kinetics, that they are recruited to bacteria independently of each other, and that depletion of either adaptor leads to impairment of antibacterial autophagy. Depletion of both adaptors does not synergistically impair autophagy, indicating they act in the same pathway. Remarkably, we observed that these adaptors do not colocalize, but rather form non-overlapping microdomains surrounding bacteria. We conclude that p62 and NDP52 act cooperatively to drive efficient antibacterial autophagy by targeting the protein complexes they coordinate to distinct micro-domains associated with bacteria.

Download full-text


Available from: John Brumell, Mar 07, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacterial invasion results in the rapid induction of an acute state of cytosolic amino acid (AA) starvation, provoked by host membrane damage. Bacteria-induced AA starvation, in turn, down-regulates mTOR signaling while triggering autophagy and the integrated stress response pathway dependent on GCN2, eIF2α and ATF3. In Salmonella-infected cells, we now demonstrate that the host AA starvation response program depended on the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1, the activity of which was required to damage the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) in the early stage of infection. At a later stage (3-4 hour post-infection), the progressive recruitment of mTOR to the surface of the SCV appeared to be independent of the activity of SPI-2 and of SCV positioning in the cell. Instead, mTOR localization to the SCV required the activity of host AA transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5, resulting in bacterial escape from autophagy. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the AA starvation response in Salmonella-infected cells.
    12/2012; 1(12):1215-25. DOI:10.1242/bio.20122840
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy, which targets cellular constituents for degradation, is normally inhibited in metabolically replete cells by the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR. Although autophagic degradation of invasive bacteria has emerged as a critical host defense mechanism, the signals that induce autophagy upon bacterial infection remain unclear. We find that infection of epithelial cells with Shigella and Salmonella triggers acute intracellular amino acid (AA) starvation due to host membrane damage. Pathogen-induced AA starvation caused downregulation of mTOR activity, resulting in the induction of autophagy. In Salmonella-infected cells, membrane integrity and cytosolic AA levels rapidly normalized, favoring mTOR reactivation at the surface of the Salmonella-containing vacuole and bacterial escape from autophagy. In addition, bacteria-induced AA starvation activated the GCN2 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, and the transcription factor ATF3-dependent integrated stress response and transcriptional reprogramming. Thus, AA starvation induced by bacterial pathogens is sensed by the host to trigger protective innate immune and stress responses.
    Cell host & microbe 06/2012; 11(6):563-75. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2012.04.012 · 12.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a housekeeping process that maintains cellular homeostasis through recycling of nutrients and degradation of damaged or aged cytoplasmic constituents. Over the past several years, accumulating evidence has suggested that autophagy can function as an intracellular innate defense pathway in response to infection with a variety of bacteria and viruses. Autophagy plays a role as a specialized immunologic effector and regulates innate immunity to exert antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Numerous bacterial pathogens have developed the ability to invade host cells or to subvert host autophagy to establish a persistent infection. In this review, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of the interaction between antibacterial autophagy (xenophagy) and different bacterial pathogens.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2012; 44(2):99-108. DOI:10.3858/emm.2012.44.2.032 · 2.46 Impact Factor